Leaders: Abraham Lincoln and Oliver Howard.
Established: 1865 by Congress.
Aims: to help former black slaves and poor whites after the U.S. Civil War (1861-65).
Methods: peaceful, e.g. communication with families.
At this time:Lincoln had introduced the Emancipation Proclamation (1863) and was president of the United States.
Leaders: W.ED DuBois, William Monroe Trotter, Fredrick L. McGhee (Minnesota), Charles Bentley (Chicago).
Established: 1905 by a group led by W.E.B DuBois and William Monroe Trotter.
Aims: stop racial segregation and disenfranchisement (not being allowed to vote). Also opposed to policies of coincilation promoted by leaders such as Booker T. Washington (e.g. Atlanta Compromise).
Methods: non peaceful.
*National Assocaiton for the Advancement of Coloured People.
Leaders: W.E.B DuBois, Moorfield Storey, William Walling, Oswald Villiard and Frances Blascoer.
Established: February 12th 1909.
Aims: to ensure political, educational, social and econominc equality of rights to all people and to eliminate racial hatred and discrimnation.
Methods: peaceful protest methods e.g. marches, public speeches and campaign boycotts.
*Universal ***** Improvement Association.
Leaders: Marcus Garvey.
Established: 1917-1918 saw the first American branch, branches in 38 states by the 1920s.
Aims: "Uniting Blacks was the only way to improve their condition", also promoted pride and love.
Methods: protests, parades, marches through cities, pamphlets, meetings and speeches.
Sleeping Car Porters Brotherhood.
Leaders: A.Philip Randolph and C. L. Dellums.
Aims: fight against the Pullman company, its allies within the black communtiy, the white structure and rival unions.
Methods: peaceful protests.
Congress for Racial Equality.
Leaders: James L. Farmer Jr, George Houser, James R. Robinson, Bernice Fisher, Homer Jack and Joe Quinn.
Members: originally 28 male, 22 female, one third black and two thirds black.
Established: March 1942 in Chicago.
Aims: bring about equality for all people regardless of race, creed, sex, age, disability, sexual orientation or ethnic background.
Methods: non-violent to be used if proved necessary.
*Montgomery Improvement Association.
Leaders: Martin Luther King Jr, Edgar Nixon and Rosa Parks.
Established: December 5th 1955.
Aims: to focus national attention on racial segregation in the south and catapult King into national spotlight.
Methods: boycotting the Montgomery buses, 90% of African Americans chose not to ride the buses.
*Southern Christian Leadership Conference.
Leaders: Martin Luther King.
Established: 1957, following the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Aims: advancement of civil rights, in a non-violent manner.
*Student Nonviolent Coordination Committee.
Leaders: Ella Baker and Stokely Carmichael.
Aims: securing the right to vote.
Methods: direct action e.g. protests against segregation in dozens of southern communities.
Nation of Islam.
Leaders: Wallace D, Wallace Fard Muhammed, Elijah Muhammed, Malcolm X, Wairth Deen Muhammed
Established: July 1930 by Wallace D.
Aims: restore black pride, improve spiritual mental, social and economic conditions of African Americans in the United States, and the whole world.
Methods: rallied large crowds and controversy to bring media attention.
*Alternatively known as: Black Panthers.
Leaders: Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale.
Aims: set forth a doctrine calling for the protection of black neighbourhoods from police brutality.
Methods: a militant, black, political organisation.
National Urban League.
Leaders: Ruth Standish Baldwin and Dr. George Edmund Haynes.
Established: 19th September 1910.
Aims: to enable African Americans to secure economic self-reliance, parity, power and civil rights.
Methods: education and persuasion.
*American Indian Movement.
Leaders: Native Americans.
Established: July 1968.
Aims: end police brutality on Indian people and restore their triabls lands.
Methods: sit ins, which were often heavily armed, and patrol where they turned up to arrests to film and aquire evidence of beatings, then legal action to bring jusice against uncecessary restraint from police.