Chemitry

revision for chemistry

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Topic 1

1. ATOMIC STRUCTURE

 

(a) know that the relative masses of protons, neutrons and electrons and their 

relative electric charges.

 

 (b) understand that the atom as a whole has no electrical charge because the 

number of electrons in the orbits (shells) is equal to the number of protons in 

the nucleus.

(c) know that all atoms of a particular element have the same number of 

protons and atoms of different elements have different numbers of protons.

(d) understand the terms atomic number and mass number.

(e) use data given in the form      Na   to give the number of protons, neutrons 

and electrons present in the atom. 

 

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Topic 2

2.  CHEMICAL BONDING, STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES

 

(a) know that the uses of a material depend on its properties (the way it 

behaves) and that the properties are closely related to the structure and 

bonding within the material.

(b) know that modern materials are designed by chemists for specific purposes.

(c) examine the properties of substances and use collected data to classify 

substances as metals, ionic compounds, simple molecular covalent 

substances or giant covalent substances 

 (d) use the accepted structural model for metals to explain their physical 

properties and to explain differences in strength between metals such 

as sodium and aluminium 

(e) compare the structure of a metallic glass with that of a typical metal and 

understand how it leads to differences in properties 

(f)  use  their  understanding  of  atomic  structure  to  explain, 

diagrammatically or otherwise, how ions are formed and how ionic 

bonding takes place in simple binary compounds, for example, 

compounds of Li, Na, K, Mg or Ca with O, S, F or Cl 

(g) use the accepted structural model for giant ionic structures to explain the 

physical properties of ionic substances such as sodium chloride

(h)  use their understanding of atomic structure to explain, 

diagrammatically or otherwise, how covalent bonding takes place to 

form simple molecules, for example, hydrogen, chlorine, hydrogen 

chloride, water, methane and ammonia 

 

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Topic 2

(i) use the accepted structural model for simple molecular structures to explain 

the physical properties of simple molecular substances, for example, 

methane 

(j) recognise diagrams of the structures of diamond and graphite and describe 

the bonding present

(k) relate the uses of diamond and graphite to their properties 

(l)  relate the properties of diamond and graphite to their structures and 

bonding

(m) recognise the structure of carbon nanotubes from 

given diagrams and understand their intended use in miniature 

electronic circuitry 

(n) use given data to evaluate the benefits, risks and drawbacks of new 

developments in material science, such as metallic glasses, carbon 

nanotubes and new alloys 

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Topic 3

3. THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF METALS

(a) examine the relationship between the method of extraction of a metal from 

its ore and its position in the Reactivity Series (e.g. aluminium, a reactive 

metal, is extracted by electrolysis; iron, a less reactive metal, by chemical 

reduction).

(b) use displacement and competition reactions of metals to determine their 

relative reactivity

(c) explain the terms reduction (removal of oxygen) and oxidation (gain of 

oxygen) and recognise their occurrence in reactions

(d) know that extraction of a metal requires the process of reduction

(e) know the meaning of the terms electrolysis, electrode, anode, cathode and 

electrolyte

(f) know the processes involved in the commercial extraction of aluminium, 

including being able to write and interpret word and balanced symbol 

equations for the reactions at the anode and cathode

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Topic 3

g) know the reasons for the high cost of the process and how those costs are 

minimized 

(h) know that recycling aluminium uses only about 5% of the energy needed to 

extract it from bauxite and saves waste. 

(i) discuss the factors affecting the siting of an aluminium extraction plant. 

 

(j) relate the uses of aluminium, copper and titanium to their properties

(k) relate the uses of different steels to their composition and properties

(l) know that steel is recycled on a large scale and that recycling steel saves 

50% of the energy used in the extraction of iron, helps to conserve iron ore 

and also cuts down on the emission of greenhouse gases

(m) evaluate the social, economic and environmental impact of the use and 

extraction of metals 

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Topic 4

4. CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS

(a) know that atoms of different elements have different masses.

(b) know that the mass of an atom of an element is measured on a scale which 

compares masses of atoms with each other, and that this mass is called the 

relative atomic mass (Ar).

(c) be able to calculate the relative molecular (formula) mass (Mr) of a compound 

whose formula is supplied.

(d)  be able to calculate the formulae of binary compounds from given 

experimental data.

(e)  be able to calculate the reacting masses of reactants or products, given a

balanced symbol equation for the reaction.

(f) be able to calculate the percentage yield of a reaction 

(g) be able to calculate the atom economy of a reaction from a given equation, 

using the relation

 

(h) appreciate the importance of the concept of atom economy in assessing the 

level of waste in a reaction, e.g. by using given data to calculate and compare 

the atom economy of the traditional method of extracting Ti with the modern 

electrolytic method 

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Topic 5

5. AMMONIA AND FERTILISERS

(a) know that ammonia is made from atmospheric nitrogen by the reversible reaction

b)  interpret given data to show how the yield of product depends upon the

conditions used in the manufacture of ammonia (w(i)a,d;(iv)b)

(c) know how nitrogenous fertilisers such as ammonium sulphate and ammonium 

nitrate are obtained by neutralising ammonia solution with sulphuric acid or nitric 

acid, respectively.

(d) evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using nitrogenous fertilisers for

individuals, communities and the environment. (w(i)a;(iv)b)

(e)  identify the presence of an ammonium salt by reaction with sodium 

hydroxide solution to produce ammonia gas.

(f) identify the alkaline gas ammonia by its action on damp red litmus paper

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Topic 6

6. ALKANES, ALKENES AND POLYMERS

(a) be able to write structural formulae for simple alkanes (C1-C5) and ethene

(b) know the meaning of the terms saturated and unsaturated

 (c) know how large  saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes) can be cracked by heating in 

the presence of a catalyst to form smaller more useful hydrocarbon molecules 

including monomers (alkenes) for making polymers

(d) know the process of addition polymerisation of ethene to produce polythene and be

able to write and interpret the following equation:

 (e)  be able to draw the repeating unit for the addition polymers, poly(ethene),

poly(tetrafluoroethene) (PTFE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in the form:

 (f) relate the uses of polythene, PVC and PTFE to their properties 

(g) relate the uses of thermoplastics and thermosets to their properties and structure

 

(h) use given data to compare the properties and uses of polymers and traditional

materials. 

(i) evaluate the social, economic and environmental impact of the widespread use of

plastic products, for individuals, communities and the environment. 

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Topic 7

(a) know that the term smart material has been given to a range of modern materials

whose properties change with a change in the surroundings, such as changes in

temperature, light, pH etc, for example:

 thermochromic paint, which changes colour when heated

 photochromic paint, which changes colour on exposure to light

 shape memory alloy, such as NiTi or nitinol, an alloy of nickel and titanium,

which has the ability to regain it's original shape when heated; uses include

coffeepot thermostat, superelastic spectacle frames, stents for veins, etc.

 shape memory polymer, which has the ability to regain its original shape when 

heated; potential uses include biodegradable surgical sutures that will

automatically tighten to the correct tension and self repairing car bodies that will 

recover shape on gentle heating after a dent

 polymer gels, such as hydrogels, have a cross linked polymer structure inflated 

with a solvent, such as water; the gel has the ability to swell or shrink (up to 

1000 times in volume) due to small changes in, e.g. temperature or pH;

intended uses include artificial muscles, robot actuators, absorbers of toxic

chemicals, etc.

(b) use given data to evaluate the social, economic and environmental impact of the 

use of smart materials 

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Topic 8

8. WATER

(a) describe in outline the treatment of the public water supply, using filter beds and

chlorination.

(b) be able to draw and interpret solubility curves using given data on change of

solubility with temperature

(c) know the causes of hardness in water and distinguish between a hard and a soft 

water by their action with soap

(d) plan and carry out experiments to measure the type (temporary or permanent) and

amount of hardness using soap solution

(e) know how the methods of boiling, adding sodium carbonate and ion exchange work

to soften water and discuss their advantages and disadvantages

(f) evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of soft and hard water 

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