Analysis and Synthesis

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  • Created by: katieh
  • Created on: 15-03-15 16:15
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  • Chemistry-Analysis and Synthesis
    • Testing for positive ions
      • Flame Test
        • lithium- crimson
        • sodium- yellow
        • potassium- lilac
        • calcium- red
        • barium- green
      • Sodium Hydroxide
        • hydroxides of most metals that have ions 2+ and 3+ charges are insoluble in water
        • adding sodium hydroxide will cause a precipitate of the metal hydroxide to form
          • hydroxides of most metals that have ions 2+ and 3+ charges are insoluble in water
        • preciptates
          • aluminium ions- white
            • dissolves in excess hydroxide solution
          • calcium ions-white
          • magnesium ions- white
          • iron (II)- green
          • iron (III)- brown
          • copper- blue
    • Testing for negative ions
      • Carbonate ions
        • add dilute hydrochloric acid to the substance
          • to see if it fizzes
        • if it does and the gas produced turns limewater milky
          • the substance contains carbonate ions
      • Halide ions
        • add dilute nitric acid then silver nitrate solution
        • chloride ions
          • white precipitate
        • bromide ions
          • cream precipitate
        • iodide ions
          • yellow precipitate
      • sulfate ions
        • add dilute hydrochloric acid and then barium chloride solution
          • white precipitate forms
            • sulfate ions are present
    • Titrations
      • the volume of solutions that react exactly can be found
      • procedure
        • 2- a known volume of alkali is measured into the conical flask
          • using a pipette
          • 3- indicator is added
        • 1-acid is put into the burette and is drained until the meniscus reaches 0
        • 4- the acid is then added whilst the conical flask is swirled
          • 5- when there is a colour change you have reached the end point
            • 6- repeat but slowly turn the tap when reaching the end point
              • to find an accurate end point
      • volume of acid used is found
    • Titration Calculations
      • mass or number of moles and a given volume of solution
        • calculate the concentration
      • volume of solution and it's concentration
        • calculate the mass or number of moles in a substance
    • The Haber Process
      • making ammonia
        • make fertilisers
      • nitrogen and hydrogen are purified and mixed in the correct proportions
        • they're passed over an iron catalyst
        • temperature of 450'c
        • pressure of 200 atmospheres
          • these conditions are chosen to give a fast rate of reaction and a reasonable yield
            • temperature of 450'c
            • they're passed over an iron catalyst
      • reversible reaction
      • the gases are cooled and the ammonia condenses
        • the liquid ammonia is separated from unreacted gases
          • the unreacted gases are recycled so that they aren't wasted
      • optimum temperature
        • forward reaction is exothermic
          • lower temperature, greater yield
        • reaction rate decreases as temperature is lowered
          • iron catalyst become inneffective
          • take longer time to produce ammonia
      • optimum pressure
        • higher the pressure, greater yield of ammonia
          • the higher the pressure the more energy is needed
            • higher pressure needs stronger reaction vessels and pipes
              • increased costs
  • from the initial and final burette reading
    • volume of acid used is found

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