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Alkanes
· Are a group of hydrocarbons
·The carbon atoms are joined together by single carbon-carbon bonds
·All carbon atoms are linked to four carbon or hydrogen atoms by single bonds
·Only contain single bonds, so they are saturated hydrocarbons
· Don't react with aqueous reagents because the C-C and C-H bonds are strong and unreactive
· Burn in air to produce carbon dioxide and water
Alkane Methane Ethane Propane Butane
Molecular Formula CH4 C 2 H6 C 3 H8 C4H10
Displayed formula…read more

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Alcohols CnH2n+1OH
·Ethanol can be used as a solvent or a fuel
·Methanol can be used as a chemical feedback or in the manufacture of cosmetics
Alcohol Methanol Ethanol
Molecular Formula CH3OH C2H5OH
Displayed formula
Boiling point Melting point Density From this table we can see the
(°C) (°C) (g/cm3) hydrocarbon chain behaves like
the Alkane.. Less dense than
Alcohol 78 -114 0.79 water. Also, the ­OH group
Water 100 0 1.0 behaves like water, which
explains the higher than expected
Alkane -89 -183 0.546 boiling point.…read more

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Reactions of Alcohols
· Alcohols react with sodium to produce a salt and hydrogen gas
· Sodium sinks in alcohol
·Sodium floats on water, melts and gives of hydrogen
·No reaction between sodium and Alkane
Ethanol + Sodium Sodium ethoxide + hydrogen
The following equation shows what happens
when an alcohol burns in air...
CHOH(l) + 3O(g) 3HO(g) + 2CO(g)…read more

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Carboxylic Acids -COOH
· Simplest carboxylic acids; Methanoic acid, Ethanoic acid
·Vinegar = dilute solution of Ethanoic acid
· The smell of sweaty socks
· Rancid butter smell
·Weak acids
·React with metals, carbonates and alkalis to produce carboxylic acid salts
· Can be neutralised by alkalis to form a carboxylic acid salt and water
LEARN THE MOLECULAR AND DISPLAYED
FORMULA OF METHANOIC ACID AND
ETHANOIC ACID...…read more

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Esters and Fats
Carboxylic acids react with alcohols to form esters. This reaction is carried out in the
presence of a strong acid catalyst. Esters have a distinctive smell (fruits) and are used
in the manufactures of perfumes and food products. They could also be found in
solvents and plasticizers.
Ethanoic
Acid + Ethanol Ethyl
Ethanoate + Water
· Fats are the esters of glycerol and fatty acids
·Animal fats are mostly saturated molecules and are unreactive
· Saturated molecules have single carbon-carbon bonds
·Vegetable oils and mostly unsaturated molecules and are reactive
·Unsaturated contain some double carbon-carbon bonds…read more

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