AQA C1 Revision

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Chemistry 1 Revision Booklet
Unit Chemistry 1 Syllabus
At the beginning of each sub-section, activities are stated which
develop candidates. skills, knowledge and understanding of how
science works. Details are then given of the substantive contexts in
which these skills, knowledge and understanding should be set. It is
expected that, where appropriate, teachers will adopt a practical
approach, enabling candidates to develop skills in addition to
procedural knowledge and understanding.
Note that objective test Chemistry 1a examines Section 11.1 . 11.3
and objective test Chemistry 1b examines Sections 11.4 . 11.6.
11.1 How do rocks provide building
materials?
The exploitation of rocks provides essential building materials.
Limestone is a naturally occurring resource that provides a starting point for the
manufacture of cement, concrete and glass. Throughout Unit Chemistry 1,
candidates should know that atoms are held together in molecules and lattices by
chemical bonds, but no detailed knowledge of the types of chemical bonding is
required. Candidates should be able to interpret chemical equations in symbol form
and should be able to balance equations in terms of numbers of atoms.
Candidates should use their
skills, knowledge and
understanding of how science
works :
to consider and evaluate the environmental, social and economic effects of exploiting
limestone and producing building materials from it
to evaluate the developments in using limestone, cement, concrete and glass as building
materials, and their advantages and disadvantages over other materials.
Their skills, knowledge and
understanding of how science
works should be set in these
substantive contexts:
All substances are made of atoms. A substance that is made of only one sort of atom is called
an element. There are about 100 different elements. Elements are shown in the periodic table.
The groups contain elements with similar properties.
Atoms of each element are represented by a chemical symbol, eg O represents an atom of
oxygen, Na represents an atom of sodium.
Atoms have a small central nucleus around which there are electrons.
When elements react, their atoms join with other atoms to form compounds. This involves
giving, taking or sharing electrons and the atoms are held together by chemical bonds. (No
further knowledge of ions, ionic and covalent bonding is required in this unit.)
Atoms and symbols are used to represent and explain what is happening to the substances in
chemical reactions.
The formula of a compound shows the number and type of atoms that are joined together to
make the compound.
Chemistry - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2007/8 examination
34 hij
No atoms are lost or made during a chemical reaction so the mass of the products equals the
mass of the reactants and we can write balanced equations showing the atoms involved.
Limestone, containing the compound calcium carbonate (CaCO3), is quarried and can be used
as a building material.

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Calcium carbonate can be decomposed by heating (thermal decomposition) to make calcium
oxide (quicklime) and carbon dioxide.
Carbonates of other metals decompose on heating in a similar way.
Quicklime (calcium oxide) reacts with water to produce slaked lime (calcium hydroxide).
Limestone and its products have many uses, including slaked lime, mortar, cement, concrete
and glass.
11.2 How do rocks provide metals
and how are metals used?
Metals are very useful in our everyday lives.…read more

Page 3

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They are useful as structural materials and for making things that must allow heat or electricity to
pass through them easily.
Copper has properties that make it useful for electrical wiring and plumbing. Copper can be
extracted by electrolysis of solutions containing copper compounds. (No details are required of
the extraction process.) The supply of copper-rich ores is limited. New ways of extracting copper
from low-grade ores are being researched to limit the environmental impact of traditional mining.…read more

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Most fuels contain carbon and/or hydrogen and may also contain some sulfur. The gases
released into the atmosphere when a fuel burns may include carbon dioxide, water (vapour),
carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide. Particles may also be released.
Sulfur dioxide causes acid rain, carbon dioxide causes global warming, and particles cause
global dimming.
Sulfur can be removed from fuels before they are burned, for example in vehicles. Sulfur
dioxide can be removed from the waste gases after combustion, for example in power stations.
11.…read more

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Candidates should use their
skills, knowledge and
understanding of how science
works:
to evaluate the effects of using vegetable oils in foods and the impacts on diet and health
to evaluate the benefits, drawbacks and risks of using vegetable oils to produce fuels
to evaluate the use, benefits, drawbacks and risks of ingredients and additives in foods.…read more

Page 6

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The Earth consists of a core, mantle and crust.
Scientists once thought that the features of the Earth.s surface were the result of the shrinking
of the crust as the Earth cooled down following its formation.
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2007/8 examination - Chemistry
hij
Summary questions rocks and building
This sheet is a summary of the work done in this chapter.
Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.
1 Particles and chemicals.
Eliminate the wrong option in the following true/false questions.…read more

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Quicklime and slaked lime. Complete the following paragraph by filling in the
gaps.
Quicklime has the chemical name calcium ______________ and is formed when
limestone (chemical name ____________ __________) is heated strongly. When water is
added to quicklime, an ________________ reaction occurs which gives out a lot of heat
energy. This reaction can be used in kits to ____________ up food or as a hand warmer.…read more

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Match statements A, B, C and D with the numbers 1 to 4 to describe what
happens in this process.
A cement mixed with sand and crushed rock ..........
B concrete produced ..........
C limestone heated in a kiln with clay ..........
D water added to mixture ..........…read more

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Suggest and explain one disadvantage of using glass in buildings.
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(2)
5 One of the largest limestone quarries in the United Kingdom is near the town of
Buxton. It is in the Peak District National Park, an area popular with tourists.
Suggest three social or environmental issues involved in quarrying limestone in
the
Peak District.
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(3)
6 Mortars used in most modern buildings are made using cement.
A student tested the strength of a ready-mixed mortar.…read more

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Besides cement, what was the other solid in the ready-mixed mortar?
....................................................................................................................
(1)
(ii) What other solid is needed to make concrete instead of mortar?
....................................................................................................................
(1)
Rocks and Building past paper questions
1. Magnesium chloride is a useful salt.
The flow diagram shows how it can be made.
calcium
limestone seawater
hydroxide
magnesium
hydroxide
acid
magnesium
chloride
(i) Describe how calcium hydroxide can be made from limestone.
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.....................................................................................................................................…read more

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