Chemistry GCSE (1) - PART ONE

Section One: Synthesis.

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Alkanes

Tell me everything you know about Alkanes.

Consider:

  • Formula
  • Reactivity
  • Reactions
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Alkanes ANSWERS

CnH2n+2

Unreactive, made of stable C-C, C-H bonds.

Burn  à  CO2

Single covalent bonds.

Dont react with aqueous reagents.

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Alcohols

Tell me everything you know about Alcohols.

Consider:

  • Formula
  • Reactivity/solubility
  • Uses
  • Reactions
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Alcohols ANSWERS

CnH2n+1OH

Functional group = OH

Soluble in water

Lower b/m.point (78C=ethanol)

Volatile

Used as solvents, start-point for chemical manufacture, fragrances, fuel, paint-stripper.

Hydrocarbons=burn

Sodium + Ethanol > Sodium Ethoxide + Hydrogen

Sodium + Water > Sodium Hydroxide + Hydrogen

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Carboxylic Acids

Tell me everything you know about Carboxylic Acids.

Consider:

  • Structure
  • Reactions
  • Features
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Carboxylic Acids ANSWERS

Functional Group = COOH

Form __anoic acids.

Form salts __anoate.

Ethanoic Acid + Magnesium > Magnesium Ethanoate + Hydrogen

Ethanoic Acid + Magnesium Hydroxide > Magnesium Ethanoate + Water

Ethanoic Acid + Magnesium Carbonate > Magnesium Ethanoate + CO2 + H2O

Strong, rancid smell.

Alcohols oxidise to form Carboxylic Acids.

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Esters

Tell me everything you know about Esters. Consider:

  • Structure
  • Uses
  • Reactions
  • Formation
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Esters ANSWERS

Functional Group = COO.      Alcohol + Carboxylic Acid <> Ester + Water

Pleasant Smells, Volatile. Often used in fragrances, flavourings, ointments, solvents, plasticisers.

Fatty Acid + Glycerol <> Fats/Oils + Water

Fats and Oils are esters of Fatty Acids (Carboxylic) and Glycerol (Alcohol).

Saturated (Animal Fats):

  • C-C bonds.
  • Solid. Crystalline.

Unsaturated (Vegetable Oils):

  • C=C Bonds
  • Less crystalline, so form liquids.
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Comments

tash

really good - to the point :)

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