Tell me everything you know about Alkanes.
Unreactive, made of stable C-C, C-H bonds.
Burn à CO2
Single covalent bonds.
Dont react with aqueous reagents.
Tell me everything you know about Alcohols.
Functional group = OH
Soluble in water
Lower b/m.point (78C=ethanol)
Used as solvents, start-point for chemical manufacture, fragrances, fuel, paint-stripper.
Sodium + Ethanol > Sodium Ethoxide + Hydrogen
Sodium + Water > Sodium Hydroxide + Hydrogen
Tell me everything you know about Carboxylic Acids.
Carboxylic Acids ANSWERS
Functional Group = COOH
Form __anoic acids.
Form salts __anoate.
Ethanoic Acid + Magnesium > Magnesium Ethanoate + Hydrogen
Ethanoic Acid + Magnesium Hydroxide > Magnesium Ethanoate + Water
Ethanoic Acid + Magnesium Carbonate > Magnesium Ethanoate + CO2 + H2O
Strong, rancid smell.
Alcohols oxidise to form Carboxylic Acids.
Tell me everything you know about Esters. Consider:
Functional Group = COO. Alcohol + Carboxylic Acid <> Ester + Water
Pleasant Smells, Volatile. Often used in fragrances, flavourings, ointments, solvents, plasticisers.
Fatty Acid + Glycerol <> Fats/Oils + Water
Fats and Oils are esters of Fatty Acids (Carboxylic) and Glycerol (Alcohol).
Saturated (Animal Fats):
- C-C bonds.
- Solid. Crystalline.
Unsaturated (Vegetable Oils):
- C=C Bonds
- Less crystalline, so form liquids.