C1 Chemistry GCSE

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Atoms and atomic structure:

Periodic Table:

·         protons are in order of increasing atomic number

·         vertical columns (group): elements with similar properties

·         horizontal (row) period: atomic number increases 

·         compounds= atoms joined to other atoms using chemical bonds

  •  
    • chemical bonds=electrons from reacting atoms being transferred from one to another.

·         mass of substance remains the same at the end of all reactions.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/38_modern_periodic_table.jpg

Fuels from crude oil:

·       crude oil is a mixture of compounds called hydrocarbons.( compounds of only hydrogen and carbon)

·       most crude oil hydrocarbons are alkanes

o   alkane formulae= CnH2n+2

o   for example (look at the pattern):

o   http://images.flatworldknowledge.com/ballgob/ballgob-fig04_007.jpg

·       Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons. 

·       Distillation= a process that can be used to separate a pure liquid from a mixture of liquids. It works when liquids have varied boiling points.

·        here is an example of a simple method, you will need to know this:http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/12_2_distillation.gif

·       1) Ethanol heated and as it has a lower boiling point to water it evaporates.

·       2) Ethanol vapour is cooled and condenses.

·       3) Vapour condenses to form pure liquid. ect pure ethanol without impurities.

·       Fractional distilation:

·       Fraction distillation separates a mixture into a number of parts, called factions.

·          

o   Column- is hot at the bottom and cool at the top 

§  substances with a high boiling point condense at the bottom, while substances with low boiling points condense at the top.

§  bellow is a image of fractional distillation of crude oil you will need to know this for your exam:http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/onlcourse/chm110/outlines/images/distill.GIF

·        Refinery gases:

o   used for bottled gas

·       Petrol:

o   used for fuel for cars

·       Naphtha:

o    used for making chemicals

·       Kerosene:

o   aircraft fuel

·       Diesel oil:

o   used for fuel for vehicles 

·       Fuel oil:

o   used for:

o   power station fuel

o   ship fuel

·       Bitumen/residue:

o   used for roads (tarmac) 

In the fractionating column: 

o   at 25 degrees Celsius= gases escape 

o   at 200 degrees Celsius= liquids are removed

o   at 350 degrees Celsius= solids  are removed

When fuels burn they release gasses into the atmosphere such as:

o   water vapour (hydrogen oxide)

o   carbon dioxide

o   carbon monoxide

o   sulphur dioxide= causes acid rain which reacts with limestone and kills plants and fish  in water 

Limestone:

·       Limestone= calcium carbonate, CaCo3

o   when heated breaks down to form calcium oxide+ carbon dioxide

§  Calcium oxide is quick lime

§  yellow- hot

§  white- cold

§  quick lime reacts with water to form Calcium hydroxide which is slaked lime

§  makes lime mortar for building work

·       limestone is used for:

o   mortar

o   cement

o   glass

o   to neutralise access acidity in water/soil

o   purify iron in blast

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