States of matter. Chemistry GCSE

All topic 1, States of matter including filtration etc

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  • Created on: 14-05-12 00:22
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States of matter.
Should all be touching
Regular pattern
All same size
Most particles touch
irregular shape
Particles far apart
No pattern
Particles can represent : Atoms e.g Hellium
Molecules e.g o2, h2o

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Ions ( charged particles ) e.g Na+ , K+
Properties of Solids, Liquids and gasses ( refer to book for table )
Heating and cooling curves result table ( refer to book for table )
Changes of state
Melting point can take place at diffrent temp's depending on what substance you are talking about.
Explaining changes of state:
Changes of state can be explained using the :
KENETIC PARTICLE THEORY.…read more

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At this stage the energy goes into wreaking the forces of attraction. This continues until all
the particles are free to move over each other.
The kenetic energy of the particles ( now in liquid form ) begins to increase again
.
The increased kinetic energy of the particles gives rise to an increase in temp.
When forces of attraction are being weakened there is no increase in temp.
Diffusion:
Moving particles move in random motion. That motion is refered to as :
BROWNIAN MOTION.…read more

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Mixture : Contains two or more substances not chemically bonded together.
Solute : The substance that is dissolved in the solvent.
Solvent : The liquid in which a solute is dissolved.
Solution : A mixture obtained when a solute is dissolved in a solvent.
Saturated solution is where no more will disolve in the solution.
Distillation :
Simple distillation is used to seperate a liquid from a mixture by boiling it off, then condensing it.
The pure liquid collected is known as the distillate.…read more

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Explaining chromotography :
Chromotography works because different dyes have different solubilities in solvents.
E.g
The top one is more soluble in the solvent because it has traveled
further up the paper.
A pure substance has a definite sharp melting points and boiling point.
If there is an impurity present.
The melting point falls
The boiling point increases
They are no longer sharp but happens over a range of temp.…read more

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Homogeneous ( in the same state )
e.g (mixture of ethanol and water )
Hetrogeneous ( in a different state )
e.g ( sand and H20 )
Atoms :
Atoms are made up of a nucleus with a cloud of electrons moving around the nucleus.
Most of the atom is empty space with the mass centered on the nucleus.
The mass of particles in an atom are measured in atomic mass units. ( AMA ) because they are so small.…read more

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Most elements are found on earth but some are more common than others. This is reformed to as
abundance.…read more

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