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States of matter.




Should all be touching

Regular pattern

All same size




Most particles touch

irregular shape




Particles far apart

No pattern



Particles can represent : Atoms e.g Hellium

Molecules e.g o2, h2o

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Ions ( charged particles ) e.g Na+ , K+




Properties of Solids, Liquids and gasses ( refer to book for table )

Heating and cooling curves result table ( refer to book for table )



Changes of state




Melting point can take place at diffrent temp's depending on what substance…

Page 3

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At this stage the energy goes into wreaking the forces of attraction. This continues until all
the particles are free to move over each other.

The kenetic energy of the particles ( now in liquid form ) begins to increase again

.

The increased kinetic energy of the particles gives…

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Mixture : Contains two or more substances not chemically bonded together.

Solute : The substance that is dissolved in the solvent.

Solvent : The liquid in which a solute is dissolved.

Solution : A mixture obtained when a solute is dissolved in a solvent.



Saturated solution is where no more…

Page 5

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Explaining chromotography :

Chromotography works because different dyes have different solubilities in solvents.




E.g

The top one is more soluble in the solvent because it has traveled
further up the paper.




A pure substance has a definite sharp melting points and boiling point.



If there is an impurity present.

The…

Page 6

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Homogeneous ( in the same state )

e.g (mixture of ethanol and water )



Hetrogeneous ( in a different state )

e.g ( sand and H20 )



Atoms :

Atoms are made up of a nucleus with a cloud of electrons moving around the nucleus.

Most of the atom is…

Page 7

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Most elements are found on earth but some are more common than others. This is reformed to as
abundance.

1st Oxygen

2nd Silion ( many rocks contain this )

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