Psychotic Disorders (Schizophrenia)
Psychotic disorders are named because the psychosis causes a loss of contact with reality. A psychosis is any disorder that causes a person to have hallucinations leading to confusion and disorientation. An example of a psychotic disorder is schizophrenia.
The DSM-IV classifies a person with Schizophrenia if 2 or more of the following symptoms are present (these symptoms can be positive or negative).
The first is delusions e.g. constantly feeling like they're being watched or under surveillance which leads them to feel frightened and paranoid.
The 2nd symptom is hallucinations either auditory or visual. e.g. patient stating they can see someone who is dead, but in actual fact they don't exist. An e.g. of auditory - hearing voices in your head.
A negative symptom of schizophrenia can involve having a lack of concentration or not wanting to leave the house because you're frightened.