Chapter 4



  • simple: easily digested (sugars)
  • complex: longer digestion (bread)

principle source of energy used by the body at all levels of activity

carbohydrate in food is digested and converted into glucose, then enters the bloodstream.

glucose stored in the muscles and liver as glycogen. limited stores so constant refuelling

low GI foods:

  • slower, sustained released of glucose to the blood
  • blood glucose levels remain for longer
  • 3-4hrs before exercise
  • bread, pasta, rice

high GI foods:

  • rapid, short rise in blood glucose (short lived)
  • 1-2 hrs before exercise
  • sugars

1 hr before —> liquid consumptions through sport drinks and cordials

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energy source for long duration, low intensity exercise


  • meat and dairy
  • hydrogenation (hydrogen add to liquid veg oils): oil solid at room temp (longer shelf life)

saturated fats —> animal products

too much:

  • weight gain
  • reduced stamina and flexibility
  • health problems (high BP, coronary heart disease, diabetes, high cholesterol levels)


  • made in liver
  • carried by the blood as LDL and HDL
  • LDL: too much can lead to fatty deposits developing in the arteries, therefore negative effect on blood flow
  • HDL: takes cholesterol away from where it has accumulated to the liver where its then deposited
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energy source for long duration, low intensity exercise


  • meat and dairy
  • hydrogenation (hydrogen add to liquid veg oils): oil solid at room temp (longer shelf life)

saturated fats —> animal products

too much:

  • weight gain
  • reduced stamina and flexibility
  • health problems (high BP, coronary heart disease, diabetes, high cholesterol levels)


  • made in liver
  • carried by the blood as LDL and HDL
  • LDL: too much can lead to fatty deposits developing in the arteries, therefore negative effect on blood flow
  • HDL: takes cholesterol away from where it has accumulated to the liver where its then deposited
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necessary for muscle growth and repair

meat, fish, eggs, dairy products

combination of many chemicals called amino acids


  • muscle growth and repair
  • make enzymes hormones and haemoglobin

minor source of energy. provide more energy when glycogen and fat stores are low

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keeps an individual healthy with a good immune system and this allows a performer to train maximally and recover quickly

fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K

  • fatty foods and animal products
  • dairy goods, eggs, veg oil
  • stored in liver and fatty tissues

water-soluble vitamins: B and C

  • wide range of foods
  • not stored so regular consumption
  • no benefits with excessive consumption
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Vitamins (cont.)

vitamin C (absorbic acid)

source: green veg and fruit

use: protects and keeps cells healthy, maintains bone, teeth, gums and connective tissue (ligaments)

vitamin D 

source: made by body when skin exposed to sunlight and small extent from oily fish and dairy produce

use: role in absorption of calcium (keeps bones healthy)

vitamin B1 (thiamin)

source: yeast, egg, wholegrain, bread, red meat

use: break down and release energy from food and keeps nervous system healthy

vitamin B2 (riboflavin)

source: dairy products, veg, fruit, cereals, egg

use: break down and release energy from food and keeps skin eyes and nervous system healthy

vitamin B6

source: meat, fish, eggs, bread, veg and cereals

use: forms haemoglobin and helps body to use and store energy from protein and carbs

vitamin B12 (folate)

source: red meat, dairy, fish

use: makes red blood cells and keeps nervous system healthy and releases energy from food

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assist in bodily functions

dissolved by the body as ions

called electrolytes


  • facilitate the transmission of the nerve impulses
  • enable effective muscle contraction


meat, eggs, fish, dairy products, cereals, veg, fruit, nuts

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Minerals examples


important for strong bones and teeth

enable effective muscle contraction


helps form haemoglobin

enhance oxygen transportation

improve stamina levels


energy production

sea food and veg in iodine-rich soil

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slows down time it takes body to break down food

- slower more sustained energy release


  • whole meal bread/pasta
  • fruit
  • veg 
  • pulses
  • potatoes
  • nuts
  • seeds

dietary fibre:

causes bulk in small intestine

prevents constipation

aids digestion

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  • prevents dehydration
  • nerve transmission more effective
  • regulates temp thorugh sweating
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Glycogen loading

  • preferred body energy source is glycogen
  • if muscle glycogen exceeds its replacement, then glycogen stores become depleted
    • results in fatigue 
  • endurance athletes need to consume 6-10g of carbs per kg of their body weight
  • some athletes max. their energy production 
    • glycogen loading
  • 7 days before event: deplete glycogen levels (endurance based events, followed by 3 days nocarbs)
  • for remaining days, the performer will consume high carbs meals to boost muscle glycogen (up to twice that normally stored)
  • plenty of water, as higher stores of glycogen requires a higher ingestion of water

post workout consumption 

  • replenishing glycogen stores within 20 minutes of finishing exercise can enhance performance the next day
  • the body is most able to restore lost glycogen in this time 
  • combining carbohydrates with protein (e.g. chocolate milk) allows the body to be more efficient as re-synthesis muscle glycogen
  • a liquid format is absorbed much faster than a solid and allows rehydration at the same time
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Glycogen loading pros and cons


  • increased glycogen synthesis
  • increased muscle stores of glycogen
  • increased aerobic capacity
  • delays fatigue
  • enhances endurance performances
  • prevents 'hitting the wall'


  • water retention and bloating
  • weight increases
  • muscle stiffness, fatigue and tiredness
  • depression and irritabiloty during depletion
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Creatine supplementation


  • extends the threshold of the ATC-PC system
  • allows increase in phosphocreatine stores in muscles
  • creatine supplements can boost maximal strength and lean muscle mass


  • power athletes

side effects:

  • abdominal cramps, water retention, bloating, diarrhoea, weight gain
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Bicarbonate of soda

soda loading


  • pH of blood increases - more alkaline
  • enhances buffering (removes lactic acid) capacity of blood
  • improves its ability to neutralise the negative effects of lactic acid during high intensity exercise
  • allows performers to work at a higher intensity for longer


- 400m, lactic acid athletes

side effects:

  • bloating, diarrhoea, stomach cramps, nausea etc.
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  • mild stimulant that occurs naturally 
  • tea, coffee, colas, chocolate


  • reduced perception of muscle fatigue
  • increased ability of the muscle to mobilise and utilise fat as a fuel
  • good for endurance performers

side effects:

  • dehydration
  • sleep deprivation
  • muscle and abdominal cramping
  • banned in some sports
  • loss of fine motor controls
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Quantitive and qualitative

quantitive data = contains factual information and numerical values

qualitative data = subjective, it looks at feelings, opinions and emotions

when analysing fitness testing, the results can be analysed either way. quantitive compares the scores to other peoples or standardised tables. qualitative analysis makes judgements on these scores.

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Objective and subjective

objective = based upon facts and is measurable. in fitness testing, objective tests involve a measurement and are therefore more likely to be accurate.

subjective = based upon personal opinions, assumptions, interpretations and beliefs.

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Validity and reliability

validity = when the test actually measures measures what it sets out to measure.

  • is the research method relevant and does it do exactly what it sets out to do?
  • is the test sport specific?

reliability = test can be repeated accurately

to ensure test is reliable, following needs to be accounted for:

  • experienced tester
  • standardised equipment
  • sequencing of tests is important
  • repetition of tests should be possible to avoid human error
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Warm up

helps prepare the body for exercise and should always be carried out before the start of any training session

1st stage: cardiovascular exercise (jogging) to gently increase HR

2nd stage: stretching/flexibility exercises, especially for most active joints and muscles during training session. type of stretching used will depend on activity.

3rd stage: specific skill practice. e.g. shooting in netball

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Static stretching

when the muscles is held in a stationary position for 30 secs or more

active: performer working on one joint, pushing it beyond resistance point. lengthens the muscles and tissue.

passive: when a stretch occurs with the help of an external force, such as a partner, another part of your body, gravity or a wall.

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Ballistic stretching

performing a stretch with swinging for bouncing movement to push a body part even further. only should be performed by experienced or flexible athletes.

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Physiological effects and benefits of a warm up

  • reduces injury possibility by increasing elasticity of muscle tissue
  • adrenaline release increases HR and dilates capillaries
  • muscle temp increases and will enable oxygen to dissociate easier from haemoglobin and allow an increase in enzyme activity making energy readily available through better chemical reactions
  • increase of nerve speed impulse conduction allows us to be more alert, improving reaction time.
  • allows efficient movement at joints through an increased production of synodal fluid
  • allows rehearsal of movement, the performer is practising the same skills they use in their activity
  • facilitates mental rehearsal, stress or anxiety reduction and psychological preparation
  • supplies an adequate blood flow to heart to increase efficiency.
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Cool down

takes place at the end of exercise.

consists of some form of light exercise to keep HR elevated

Physiological effects and benefits of a cool-down

  • keeps skeletal muscle pump working
  • maintains VR
  • prevents blood pooling in the veins
  • limits the effect of DOMS (delayed onset of muscle soreness)
  • removes lactic acid
  • reduces HR and body temp
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Principles of training



training is relevant and similar to your chosen activity.

Progressive overload

performer gradually trains harder throughout their training problem as their body adapts. not to overload too much too soon. will reduce risk of injury.


if training stops then adaptations that have occurred as a result will deteriorate.


rest days needed to allow body to recover from training.

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FITT principles

Frequency: increase number of training sessions, intensity and decrease rest periods

Intensity: to improve you must train harder. may use heart rate/Borg scale/one rep max to help

Time: time spent training, gradually increases

Type: needs to be relevant to activity

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dividing the training year into specific sections for a specific purpose

to improve performance but also reduce the risk of injury.

dividing the year into blocks or sections where specific training occurs

blocks of time are referred to as ‘cycles’ and periodisation divides training into three ‘cycles’: macrocycle, mesocycle, and microcycle

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period of training involving a long-term performance goal.

made up of three periods (three mesocycles):

1. preparation period

involves general conditioning and the development of fitness levels

similar to pre-season training where fitness is developed

2. competition period

where the performer refines skills and techniques, as well as maintaining fitness levels

3. transition period

rest and recovery stage.

end of the season phase allows athlete to recharge physically and mentally and ensures an injury free start to forthcoming season. 

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usually a 4-12 week period of training with a particular focus.

for example an endurance performer will focus more on strength endurance and cardio-respiratory endurance

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the description of a week or a few days of training that us repeated throughout the length of a mesocycle.

for example, what a basketball player may do from monday to sunday including rest days

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Tapering and peaking

tapering = reducing the volume and or intensity of training prior to competition.

happens few days beforehand but can depend on type of sport.

planning and organising training in this way allows for athlete to mentally/physically for the event and allows peaking to occur.

peaking = planning and organising training so a performer is at their peak, both physically and mentally, for a major competition

performer can benefit from the removal of training induced fatigue but reversibility hasn’t happened yet

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Double periodisation

some sports need an athlete to peak more than once in a season.

distance athlete for example: winter is cross country season and summer is athletics.

performers have to follow a double periodised year

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Continuous training

  • develops aerobic endurance
  • involves low-intensity exercise for long periods of time without rest intervals
  • e.g. jogging, cycling, swimming
  • improves CV and respiratory systems, increases ability to take up, transport, and use oxygen more efficiently
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Fartlek training

  • speed-play
  • pace of a run is varied to high intensity to low intensity whilst being continuous.
  • works on both aerobic and anaerobic systems.
  • high-intensity bursts and is very demanding
  • will improve stamina and recovery times
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Interval training

  • improves anaerobic power 
  • intervals of high-intensity work are followed with recovery periods
  • versatile method as it can be adapted to different anaerobic needs
  • when planning an interval training session these should be considered…
    • duration of work interval
    • intensity/speed of work interval
    • duration of recovery period
    • number of work and recovery periods
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Circuit training

  • series of exercises at a set of stations
  • when planning decide on number and variety of stations, no. of reps, amount of time at each station and length of rest interval
  • same body part shouldn’t be exercised continuously to allow for recovery
  • can be designed to cover any fitness aspect but tends to be used for muscular endurance
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Weight training

  • develops muscular strength
  • series of resistance exercises through the use of weights
  • number of reps and sets used depends on type of strength being improved
  • strength = high weights, low reps
  • endurance = low weights, high reps
  • choice of exercise should relate to the muscle groups used in sport
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Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)

advanced stretching technique

form of passive stretching where stretch is held by something other than the agonist muscles

most effective form of flexibility training for increasing range of movement

muscle isometrically contracted for 10s, relaxes, then stretched again to go further

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Acute injuries

a sudden injury caused by a specific impact or traumatic event where a sharp pain is felt immediately


  • sudden, severe pain
  • swelling around the injured site
  • not being able to bear weight
  • restricted movement
  • extreme leg or arm weakness
  • protruding bone/joint that’s visibly out of place

types: fractures, dislocation, strains and sprains

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break/crack in bone.

fracture in different ways and different types.

simple/closed F: clean break, doesn’t penetrate skin or tissue

compound/open F: tissue/skin damaged. high infection risk.

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occur at joints.

very painful. 

end of bone forced out of position.

usually happens with a fall or contact.

easy to see as bone looks out of place.

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pulled or torn muscle, fibres stretched too far so tear.

occurs with contact or rapid speed change.

elite’s prone as intensity is high and overuse happens regularly

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occurs to ligaments (tissue that joins bone to bone).

twisting and turning sports, excessive force applied, sprain occurs where ligament stretched too far or tears.

sprained ankle is common.

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Chronic injuries

often referred to as over-use injuries


  • pain when you compete or exercise
  • dull ache when resting
  • swelling

types: achillies tendonitis, stress fracture and tennis elbow

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Achilles tendonitis

causes pain and inflammation of the tendon.

located at the back of ankle and is the largest.

connects gastrocnemius to heel bone and used for everything.

regular exercise makes you prone.

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Stress fractures

area gets tender and swollen.

common in weight bearing bones of legs

when increased exercise amount or intensity too fast

when muscles fatigued so cant absorb shock.

fatigued muscle transfers stress overload to bone and result is a tiny crack

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Tennis elbow

occurs in muscles attached to elbow used to straighten wrist.

muscles and tendons become inflamed and tiny tears occur on outside of elbow.

area gets sore and tender.

medical term = lateral epicondylitis

stress on elbow causes this

inside elbow pain is called golfers elbow

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  • identify risks in a person and identify/detect a problem early before symptoms occur
    • CRY (cardiac risk in the young) heart screening; young elites use an ECG to assess the stress that the heart can take
    • assessing muscle imbalance, core strength, flexibility, postural alignment. if problems, training is created to prevent injury
    • not 100% accurate and lead to anxiety
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Protective equipment

help reduce injuries in sport

whatever equipment worn, needs to fit correctly and meet NGB regulations

football: ankle and shin pads

rugby: scrum cap, gum shield, body armour

cricket: batting pads, thigh pads, box, helmet, gloves

hockey: leg guard, shin guard, pads, kickers, face mask for short corners, gloves and helmet

squash: eye guards

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Warm up

helps prepare the body for exercise and should always be carried out before the start of any training session

1st stage: cardiovascular exercise (jogging) to gently increase HR

2nd stage: stretching/flexibility exercises, especially for most active joints and muscles during training session. type of stretching used will depend on activity.

3rd stage: specific skill practice. e.g. shooting in netball

active stretching: when a stretched position is help by the contraction of an agonist muscle

passive stretch: uses an external force to help the stretched position

static stretching: when the muscle is held in a stationary position for 10secs or more

ballistic stretching: uses swinging and bouncing movements

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taping a weak joint/muscle can help with support and stability to reduce the risk of injury

muscle tape is more elastic and is applied directly onto skin to provide controlled support as muscle moves. 

called kinesiology tape and expands as muscle contracts.

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more substantial and used on previous injuries/weak joints. aim is to prevent further injury. ankles and knees are most commonly braced in sport.

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Proprioceptive training

  • subconscious process of using a system of receptor nerves
  • for smooth co-ordinated movements, brain needs accurate knowledge of arm/leg position and how fast body parts are moving.
  • proprioceptors deliver vital info about this, after injury, this is impaired
  • uses hopping, jumping and balance exercises to restore lost proprioception and teach the body how to control the position of an injured joint subconsciously
  • balance board can strengthen ankle joints and teach body to react to wobble.
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Strength training

  • uses resistance 
  • prepares body for exercise and reduces injury chance


free weights: dumb bells and kettle bells have to be controlled as they’re lifted. not relying on machine so muscles need to  stabilise weight and lift it.

machine weights: machine has control so early injury stages can be used to improve strength with low weights

body weight: core body exercises (plank). helps balance and posture and reduces imbalances that cause injuries.

therabands: made of latex and have different strengths. light are used for rehab and as injury improves, greater resistance used.

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Hyperbaric chambers

  • reduce recovery time for injury
  • chamber is pressurised and is 100% pure oxygen
  • pressure increased amount of oxygen can be breathed in so more oxygen can be diffused to injured area
  • excess oxygen dissolves into blood plasma where it can reduce swelling and stimulate white blood cell activity and increase blood supply at injury site
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  • use of cold temperatures to treat injuries 
  • common sporting injuries = RICE used
    • has an analgesic effect so limits pain and swelling by decreasing blood flow to area
  • ice baths for recovery after exercise
  • whole body cryotherapy (WBC) use of cryogenic chambers to reduce pain and inflammation.
    • chamber cooled by liquid nitrogen to temp below -100 degrees and has socks gloves and swimming costume for 3 mins
    • freezing gas surrounds body so blood from from arms and legs flows towards core in attempt to keep body warm and protect vital organs from extreme cold
    • leave and bloody returns and heals injured cells
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  • takes place in warm water and improves circulation, relieve pain and relax muscles
  • 35-37 degrees which increases circulation
  • makes exercise easier and alters intensity
  • water buoyancy supports body weight, reduced load on joints and allows more exercise than is permitted on land
  • exercising against resistance strengthens injured area
  • e.g. squats. lunges, walking, running; faster performed, more resistance.
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Compression garments

  • improve circulation and prevent DVT
  • aid blood lactate removal and reduce inflammation and symptoms of DOMS
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  • prevent or relive soft tissue injuries
  • regular exercise = build up in tension of muscles/joints/tendons/ligaments
  • increased blood flow to repair damage
  • removes lactic acid
  • causes stretching of soft tissue to relive tension and pressure
  • breaks down scar tissue
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Foam rollers

  • self massage
  • also relieve tension between muscles and fascia (layer of fibrous connective tissue which surrounds the muscle/group of muscles)
  • prevent injury and improve mobility
  • uses body weight which can be adjusted 
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Cold therapy

  • useful after intense exercise to target minor aches and pains
  • cooling gives pain relief and causes vasoconstriction of vessels which reduces blood flow and bleeding/swelling
  • decrease in swelling; oedema enables more movement
  • ice reduces spasms by decreasing motor activity 
  • conduction velocity of sensory and motor nerves slows down
  • metallic rate decreases
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Ice baths

  • blood vessels tighten and drains blood out
  • leaving, legs fill with new blood that invigorates muscles and helps cells function better
  • lactic acid taken away so decreased soreness
  • ‘hot and colds’
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Cryotherapy 2

  • WBC to aid recovery for whole body
  • quicker alternative and more pleasant
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Sleep and nutrition for recovery

the amount of sleep you have and eating the correct foods can improve recovery time

heavy exercise = long and quality sleep as some of the rebuilding of damage is done in sleep

deep sleep is essential for this to happen

the deepest part of the sleep is the 3rd stage of non-REM sleep

brainwaves are at their slowest and blood directed towards muscles to restore energy

nutrition: glycogen stores need replenishing — 20min window after exercise

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