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KEY WORDS A2 Chapter 1 - AEROBIC ENERGY SYSTEMS
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP): our energy currency, found in all cells; when broken down it
releases its stored energy.
Resynthesize: to rebuild/remake/make again.
Aerobic: with oxygen.
Glucose: the main form of carbohydrate found in the body; dissolves in blood plasma; used as an
Energy sources: the substrates (starting chemicals) used to provide the ATP that is used for muscle
Glycogen: a store form of carbohydrate found in muscle and liver; used as an energy source.
Adipose tissue: special tissue made up of cells in which fats are stored; mainly found under the skin
and surrounding major organs.
Triglycerides: main form of stored fat; used as an energy source.
Mitochondria: organelles (within the cell) where chemical reactions of aerobic production take
Anaerobic: a process that takes place without oxygen.
Glycolysis: the process of breaking down glycogen into pyruvic avid, producing some (4 molecules)
Pyruvic acid/pyruvate: the end product of glycolysis.
Beta-oxidation: breakdown of fats into acetyl CoA within sarcoplasm.
Krebs cycle: a series of chemical reactions in the mitochondria that oxidises acetyl CoA to carbon
dioxide and combines hydrogen with hydrogen carriers.
Electron transport chain: series of chemical reactions where hydrogen is oxidised to water and
large amounts (34 molecules) of ATP are generated.
Maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 Max): the maximum amount of oxygen taken in, transported
and used by the body per minute. Also known as aerobic capacity and measured in millilitres of
oxygen for each kilogram body weight each minute (ml/kg/min).
Oxygen consumption: the amount of oxygen used by the body.
Oxygen deficit: when insufficient oxygen is available at the start of exercise to provide all the ATP
Steady state: the period of exercise when oxygen consumption matches the energy being used.
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Aerobic capacity: the maximum rate at which a person can consume oxygen.
Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC): the volume of oxygen consumed above resting
levels following exercise/during recovery.
Fast (alactacid, i.e. without lactic acid) component: oxygen used for rapid resynthesis of
phosphocreatine and resaturation of myoglobin.
Slow component: oxygen used to remove lactic acid and maintain high heart rate, breathing rate
and body temperature.…read more