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KEY TERMS A2 Chapter 4 The elite performer: food, supplements and performance-enhancing
Dehydration: the condition that occurs when the amount of water in the body falls below normal,
disrupting the balance of sugars and salts (electrolytes) in the body.
Electrolytes: the scientific term for the ions of salts such as sodium. The ions are electrically charged
Electrolytic balance: the proportion or concentration of electrolytes within the fluids of the body.
Hypothermia: a potentially fatal condition occurring when the core body temperate falls below 35
Glycaemic index: a system for ranking carbohydrates according to how quickly they are converted
to glucose and enter the blood stream, raising blood sugar levels.
UK Sport: the UK-wide organisation responsible for delivering world-class sporting success in
conjunction with a range of partner organisations.
Ergogenic aid: a performance enhancing aid or substance, legal or illegal.
Protein drink: a drink that is approximately 70% protein; it is made from powdered substances
mixed with milk, orange juice, etc.
Caffeine: a naturally occurring stimulant. It is no longer listed as a banned substance by WADA or UK
Stimulant: a drug that temporarily quickens some vital process such as in the central nervous
Anxiety: a negative aspect of feeling stress; worries over the possibility of failure.
Diuretic: a drug used to increase urine formation and output.
Bicarbonate of soda: a white soluble compound (NaHCO3) used in effervescent drinks and as an
Soda loading: ingesting sodium bicarbonate to improve the buffering of hydrogen ions during
Buffering: the ability of the blood to compensate for additions of lactic acid or hydrogen ions and
maintain the pH level.
Elite sport: sport participated in by international performers and/or professionals or by teams
performing at national or international level.
Body mass index (BMI): a statistical comparison of weight and height.
Erythropoietin: a hormone that controls red blood cell production.
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Anabolic steroid: a hormone that increases protein use and muscle cell production.
Testosterone: a steroid hormone that develops muscle mass and is responsible for the development
of male secondary sexual characteristics.
HGH: artificial human growth hormone, when produces using recombinant DNA, this looks identical to
the natural hormone.
Beta-blocker: a drug that blocks the release of chemicals, such as adrenaline, thereby causing the
heart rate to stay low and helping the performer to stay calm.…read more