Case studies

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Swimming and bathing

Pre Industrial Britain

  • towns built at river crossing
  • everyone learnt to swim to servive
  • natural playground for recreation
  • supply of food, means of transport, place to wash

Post Industrial Britain

  • rivers polluted? unsuitable for washing
  • wealthy could afford bathrooms
  • public baths built to improve health
  • swimming baths 1st and 2nd class facilities
  • small fee to swim helped stop the spread of disease

Public Schools

  • 1. informal bathing in neutral facilities during summer
  • 2. regular/ regulated bathing thought beneficial for healthy lifestyle
  • 3. tech development, facilities developed, diving boards and competition

Today

  • reccomended as good for joints
  • imporved technology, hoists for disabled to get in pool
  • improved clothing
  • poor body image ipacts esteen therefore participation
  • entertainment, flumes, slides
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Football

Pre Industrial Britain

  • mob football, cruel, voilent, occasional, local, between neighbouring villages
  • few rules, tragic consequenses
  • declared illegal but continues today (ashbourne)

Post Industrial Britain

  • ex public school boys formed FA in 1863
  • before this soccor and rugby co existed
  • best players couldnt take time off work so FA accepted professtionalism in 1888

Public Schools

  • 1. mob games & first melting pot of activities from home
  • 2. more formalised rules and interhouse competitions
  • 3. teachnology developments became a way of settling disputes rather than fighting

Today

  • wide participation
  • media coverage
  • womans world cup
  • special clothing and equipment
  • cheaop simple accessable
  • played in most schools curricular and extra curricular, also in playgrounds
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Tennis

Pre Industrial Britain

  • originated in france, became popular in Britain during 14th century
  • exclusive for kings and nobals
  • complex rules, high skill level
  • no voilence

Post Industrial Britain

  • lawn tennis for middle class as social experience
  • emancipation of women
  • not welcomed by public schools as took up too much space and dint require team work

Public Schools

  • introduced from tennis, fives
  • didnt become a national game but was popular in schools
  • allowed boys to exercise in the courtyard

Today

  • Focused clubs
  • mostly middle class
  • media coverage
  • technology advances e.g. austroturf
  • computer alternatives e.g. wii
  • summer game
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Athletics

Pre Industrial Britain

  • community events e.g. festivals, fairs and wakes were seen as the seeds from which athletics grew
  • basic simple unwritten rules
  • drinking and play closly associated
  • cheap to participate in
  • cheating was common and activity fell into dispute
  • associated attractions included hore racing

Post Industrial Britain

  • opportunities for working class
  • professtional athletics becoming established
  • lower class used running as source of income however winnings were low
  • furst purpose built track built
  • technological advances meant people could watch and wager

Public Schools

  • boys took sports of local village wakes back to schools after the holidays
  • played to relieve bordom
  • athletics sports day, headmaster proudly displayed school

Today

  • participation in jogging and running, cheap and simple.
  • increasing popularity of triathlon events
  • specalist coaches to minamize risk
  • lack of access to high level clubs determined by trials
  • not considered lifetime sport
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Cricket

Pre Industrial Britain

  • social classes play together
  • gentry employed estate workers as gardeners for cricket talent
  • clubs emerged from villages
  • interest from rich lead to standardisation of rules

Post Industrial Britian

  • William Clarke, entreprising cricketer
  • changed cricket from localised game to national success
  • upper class patronage of cricket declined so professionals looked elsewhere for employment
  • the Ashes widens knowledge and popularity

Public Schools

  • 1. non voilent, structured rules
  • 2. interhouse participation
  • 3. technological development
  • investment in equipment after success of William Clarke

Today

  • increased patricipation
  • 8,000 clubs in England
  • summer game in state schools
  • media coverage
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