America A2 Comparative Studies

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  • USA
    • Cultural Context
      • Historical
        • Pre colonisation - lacrosse (natives)
      • Geographical Determinants
        • 'Genuine Wilderness'
          • Large country, has several climate zomes
      • Government
        • Funding for sport from sources other than government (national lottery, private investors
        • Decentralisation: power is distributed equally across the states
      • Commercialis-ation
        • Capitalist country; directly influences all that happens in professional sport
          • 60 hours of sport on television a week
      • Value
        • The American Dream
          • Equality of opportunity and the belief that happiness is secured through the generation of wealth
        • The Land Of Opportunity
    • Physical Education and School Sport
      • Equality
        • Title IX
          • issue of gender equality in all areas of education
            • 'No person in the US shall on the basis of gender be excluded from participation in any education programme or activity receiving federal assistance
      • Health, Fitness and Obesity
        • 75% not reaching basic activity recommendations
          • 25 completely sedentry
      • Outdoor Education
        • Appreciation of the natural environment is highly regarded in the USA
        • Summer Camp
          • 1) State sponsored camps
          • 3) Commercial Camps
      • Intra-Mural School Sport
        • Girls tend to not participate in American Football due to Title IX Legislation
    • Mass Participation
      • Participation Rate
        • Inactivity in the US has dropped from 82.7m to 81.6m
        • 56% of population participating in at least 1 activity
      • National Fitness levels
        • USA 'Gym Culture'
        • 30 states were found to have 25%+ of their population obese
    • Sport and the Pursuit of Excellence
      • The Big Four Case Study
        • Major League Baseball (MLB)
        • The National Basketball Association (NBA)
        • The National Football League
      • Pathways to Professional Sport
        • Competition in schools almost every week with officials from colleges looking for excellence
        • Giving scholarships to young people to increase participation
      • Equality and Discrimination
        • Discrimination has been an issue in sport since 19thC
          • eg John L Sullivan
            • Stacking: Putting people of ethnic minorities in peripheral positions
        • Stacking: Putting people of ethnic minorities in peripheral positions
  • Three Tiers; 1) Federal, 2)State, 3)Local
  • State High School Athletic Association
    • National advisory body that controls inter-scholastic competions
    • Intra-Mural School Sport
      • Girls tend to not participate in American Football due to Title IX Legislation
  • 15% of children aged 6-19 are regarded clinically obese
    • 40 million considered obese
      • 75% not reaching basic activity recommendations
        • 25 completely sedentry

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