Case study key facts (Paper 2: Human)


Antarctica (Global Systems & Governance)

1. Antarctica is a global common that covers around 14 million km2 which contains 90% of Earth's ice and 70% of Earth's freshwater.

2. The Antarctic Treaty (1959) is an agreement of how to sustainably manage the ecosystem through cooperation of research and equipment is checked throughout the stay on the common.

3. The Protocol Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (1991) banned all mining, regulates waste disposal, prevents pollution & protects flora and fauna.

4. Global governance allows for greater scientific exploration e.g. monitoring ice melting of the ice shelves around Antarctica's Weddel Sea.

5. The Antarctic Southern Ocean Colaition (ASOC) was formed in 1978 monitors climate change impacts on the global common.

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Wal-Mart, Transnational Corporation (Globalisation

1. Wal-Mart is a chain of discount department stores and is one of the largest TNCs in the world and the largest retail TNC.

2. Wal-Mart has caused local businesses to close because they cannot match their low prices.

3. Wal-Mart's employees are poorly paid & have poor working conditions (long hours also).

4. They donate millions to improve the health & environment in the host country.

5. Offers a reliable wage than other jobs in poorer countries & skills/ jobs in LICs.

6. Wal-Mart invest in environmentally friendly technologies & sustainable development schemes.

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World Trade Commodity: Coffee (Globalisation)

1. Coffe is grown in warm, wet conditions around the Equator, so these conditions make disease outbreak more likely (e.g. bacterial blight/ coffe leaf rust/ Coffee Berry Disese).

2. Coffe is low-value that's mainly produced in LICs and consumed in HICs (Brazil is the largest coffe producer globally, the USA is the largest coffee importer globally).

3. Only 7-10% of the supermarket price of coffee goes to the farmers- the farmers sell unproccessed beans where TNCs buy the beans to roast them (increasing the value).

4. The Fairtrade Foundation was set up in 1992 to promote brands that support coffee farmers, work with producer organisations, maintain environmental standards & prohibit child labour.

5. Fairtrade organisations pays additional money to communual fund to help development- Fairtrade Premium.

6. Fairtrade Minimum Price- minimum price that coffee buyers have to pay to producers to cover farmer's costs; prevents farmers going out of business/ falling into poverty.

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Collum Coal Mine (Globaisation)

1. Located 200km south-west of Lusaka and supplies fuel to Zambia's copper & colbat mines.

2. Ministers accused the company of not decalring the total amount of coal produced to avoid tax payments.

3. In 2011, there was a police investigation where 11 African workers were shot by Chinese mangers.

4. The mine was seized by the Zamibian government in 2013 for poor 'safety and health and environment record.'

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Tata Steel, UK (Globaisation

1. The government worked with Tata to find a buyer to protect steel jobs & prevented direct conflict with the Chinese government.

2. The EU imposed anti-dumping duties for 6 months from China & Tawian in 2015.

3. Tata Steel announced its intentions to sell its UK business because the British government needed to renationalise the steel industry.

4. Selling Tata Steel risked the jobs of thousands of employees.

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World Trade: Fairtrade (Globalisation)

1. Bananas are the world's most popular fruit and UK Fairtrade is doubling every 2 years.

2. Supermarkets are negotiating low prices from plantations & farmers lower down the supply chain to squeeza profits; they're sold at loss leaders.

3. The bananas sold in Latin-America are owned by fruit-exporting TNCs that dominate plantation monoculture.

4. The soil in host countries is exhausted by monoculture due to export-orientated operations.

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El Guabo Association (Globalisation)

1. El Guabo is one of the world's largest fairtrade producers that was formed in 1997.

2. It exports around 30,000 boxes weekly to Europe and the USA.

3. Employees are guaranteed a fair wage & long-term supply contract- reliable employment.

4. Producers are able to raise addtional capital to reinvest into the host country economy.

5. Marginalised groups (HIV/ AIDs suffers) are helped to find employment.

6. Healthcare benefits to families of the cooperatives & provision of educational & medical supplies.

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Ubisoft, Montreal: Urban resurgence (Urbanisation)

1. Ubisoft is a computer-animation firm that decided to locate in the Mile-End neighbourhood centre of Montreal, Canada.

2. Located in an old textile factory in the downtown district.

3. Their employees work 24 hours a day so they located in a 24-hour city for the provision of goods and services.

4. Many of the 2700 employees are recruited near the McGill University & Ecole de Technologie Superieure.

5. Many of the employees walk or cycle to work from city centre neighbourhoods.

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Shanghai, World Cities (Urbanisation)

1. Shanghai has more than 100,000 graduates a year from 60 higher education insitutions.

2. Cities ae located along the Yangtze River to support the city's export-orientated economy.

3. Economic & technological development zones were established and produced large inward investment after Shanghai was declared 1 of 14 open cities by the Chinese gov. in 1984.

4. Shaghai's favourable terms offered to overseas companies attracts a disporportionate amount of overseas investement, which continbuted to its continued growth at the expense of some smaller cities.

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Urban growth, Bengaluru (Urbanisation)

1. One of India's fastest-growing cities with a focus on technology & knowlegde economy.

2. The government has been proactive in tackling some urban problems by investing into education, transport, infrastructure, urban development areas & suburban housing development.

3. Bengaluru has spearheaded India's drive into a new globalised economy that has been described as the largest job-creating city in India.

4. Bengaluru experienced trickle-down effects where there's a greater divde between the middle and lower class due to increasing housing pressure and rents, causing people to move out.

5. The city's 200 engineering colleges and many universities has provided a highly-skilled workforce for India's defense & space research industries.

6. The city's population was 12.9 million, more than double of what is was in 2001; due to the influx of immigrants.

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Urban regeneration: Longbridge, UK (Urbanisation)

1. Longbridge site was a 468-acre brownfield site that was the largest car plants in th world into a £1 billion mixed community development.

2. It was the largest regeneration scheme outside of London.

3. 350 new homes within walking distance of the Longbridge rail station.

4. £100 million Longbridge Technology Park is home to 60+ businesses to make Longbridge the Midlands' leading technology & innovation centre.

5. £70 million town centre is home to high-street retailers, resturants, hotels, offices, public park & car parking.

6. 200,000+ people live within a 10-minute drive from eachother.

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Las Vegas, a postmodern city (Urbanisation)

1. In 1905, the railroad arrived in Las Vegas, Nevada, connecting the city with the Pacific Ocean and the country's main railroad netowrk.

2. Casinos & entertainment venues opened up outside the city's jurisdition to meet the workforce's needs.

3. The ***** rapidly expanded due to cheap finding from gangsters and reputable entrepreneurs.

4. The ***** has experienced a postmodern transformation with the construction of massive complexes that are inspired from global landmarks.

5. The powerful gambling/ casino industry dominates a fragmented and weak local government that draws from a limited tax base.

6.  Service-dominated industry where tourism drives the economy.

7.  Nevada is consistently ranked amongst the highest in the US for violent crime.

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Cultural diversity: Batley (Urbansation)

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Birmingham (Urbanisation)

1. During the 1970/80s, the economy suffered from deindustrialisation through the decline of the metalwork industries that caused poverty, uemployment & dereliction.

2. Production of 3.2 million tonnes of waste annually, where the majority of it is incinerated/ sent to landfill and only 25% is reused/ recycled.

3. Due to cultural heritage quarters, vistors are drawn to the cultural heriatge of the area and 37 million tourists visited the city in 2014.

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Mumbai (Urbanisation)

1. Mumbai has a major port on the Inidan Ocean and has experienced a population increase from 5.9 million people (1971) to 20.7 million people (2016).

2. India has a monsoon climate (long, dry season followed by intense rainfalll), which causes the average preciptation during July (monsoon season) to be 960mm; low-lying land at risk of floods.

3. To increase water security, local authorities made rainwater harvesting systems compulsory on new buildings on plots larger than 300m2.

4. Mumbai is reliant on monsoon rains for water supply, which isn't sustainable as the population and therfore demand is increase as water's rationed during dry periods.

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Singapore (Urbanisation)

1. The amount of waste produced in Singapore increased from 1260 tonnes per day in 1970 to 8400 tonnes in 2015; land is scare, so waste management is important.

2. In the late 1970s, the government changed their waste disposal method to incineration.

3. The first incineration plant was developed in 1979, now, there are 4 plants, providing 3% of Singapore's energy.

4. One landfill site, Semaku, which is lined with an impermeable membrance and layer of clay to prevent chemicals from escaping.

5. In 2015, 2% of waste was sent to landfill, 38% was incinerated & 60% was recycled.

6. Pollution control systems cannot remove all emission from incinerators.

7. Incinerators last around 10 years before having to be replaced; the landfill site is expected to be fill by 2040.

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Bangkok- Urban dereliction (Urbanisation)

1. A rpaid rise in car ownership, with poor maintenance is cauing high levels of air pollution.

2. Goverment plans to reduce air pollution such as new bus lanes, subway & fines if car exhaust fumes are too high.

3.  Poor sweage systems & ineffective waste management causes water pollution.

4. River water contains an unsafe amount of ammonia & coliform bacteria.

5. Buildings were left half-finished after Asia experienced a finanacial crisis in 1997; these buildings have fallen into disrepair, leading to vandalism.

6. Economic growth in 2010 meant that incentives of foregin investement may controbute to improve dereliction.

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Manchester (Urbanisation)

1. The closure of factories & better management of air quality= reduced air pollution.

2. In the late 20th century, River Irwell/ Ship Canal were badly polluted by industry & sewage.

3. Since 1987, work has been done to increase O2 content, increase aquatic plant growth & reduce litter.

4. To reduce surface runoff from roads -> SUDs like green areas & porous pavements.

5. In the late 1980/90s, deindustrialisation & job losses made people leave the city.

6.  Large-scale redevelopment begun in 1996 to convert former mills/ factories into luxury falts & open spaces were improved.

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