cardiovascular system and respiratory system

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  • Created by: eleanor
  • Created on: 20-04-13 11:36

Long and Short effects.

Immediate effects when first exercising:

  • Heart contracts more often – increased heart rate.
  • Heart contracts more powerfully – increased stroke volume, which is the volume of blood pumped from heart with each beat.
  • Blood diverted to muscles, eg it is diverted from the digestive system to the muscles.
  • Blood temperature rises.
  • Blood vessels near skin open to allow heat to be lost.

Effects of regular training:

  • Heart muscle increases in size and strength.
  • Cardiac output increases. Cardiac means relating to the heart so this is the amount of blood that the heart pumps out to the body.
  • Lower resting heart rate, quicker recovery from exercise.
  • Reduced risk of heart disease.
  • Increased number of capillaries in muscles.
  • Increased volume of blood and red blood cells.
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stroke volume

stroke volume- is the amount of blood each ventricle pumps with each contraction or heartbeats. 

cardiac outputby multiplying your heart rate and stroke volume together you can work out the volume pumped by a ventricle per minute, 

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blood pressure

everytime your heart contracts, it forces blood around your body by increasing you blood pressure. 

blood pressure is the force caused by the blood on the walls of the blood vessels 

there are two reading- 

  • systolic pressure-
    • the blood pressure in the arteries when the ventricles contract.
    • this is when your blood pressure is at its highest 
  • diastolic pressure-
    • the blood pressure in the arteries when the venticles relaxes
    • this is when your blood pressure is at its lowest.  
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lifestyle effects.

Diet- eating a diet thats high in saturated fat and salt can cause your blood pressure and cholesteral to rise 

Low-Density Lipoprotiens (LDL)- transport cholesteral to your cells. LDL cholesteral is often called the bad type becaause having to much of it can clog up your blood vessels. 

High-Densitity Lipoproteins (HDL)- helps rid of excess cholesteral from the body. having a lot of HDL is a good thing, as it helps stop a build up of cholesteral. you can increase your levels of HDL by exercising. 

Drugs- drugs can also have an effect on your blood pressure. drinking alcohol will increase your blood pressure- the more you drink, the higher it gets. Smoking and nicotine causee a temporary in blood pressure.  

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respiratory system

  • air passes through the noseor mouth and then on to the trachea 
  • the trachea spilts into two tubes called bronchi (bronchus) one going into each lung 
  • the bronchi spilt into progessively smaller tubes called bronchioles.
  • the bronchioles finally end at small bags called alveoli (alveolus) where gas exchange happens.  (
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vital capacity

when you're breathing normally, you only breathe a small amount of air in and out. 

the most air you could possibly breathe in and out is called your vital capacity. 

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long and short term effects on respiratory system

Immediate effects when first exercising:

  • Increased rate of breathing
  • Increased depth of breathing – rise in tidal volume

Effects of regular training:

  • Increased strength of diaphragm and intercostal muscles.
  • Greater number of alveoli.
  • Increased ability of the lungs to extract oxygen from the air.
  • Increased vital capacity.
  • Increased amount of oxygen delivered to, and carbon dioxide removed from, the body.

oxygen debt is theamount of oxygen you need to consume while recovering from exercise above the normal amount needed at rest. 

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smoking has a bad effect respiratory system.

cigarette smoke contains tar, which clogs up the alveoli and makes it harder for gas exchange to take place. eventually the alveoli will collapse and stop working. 

even if the tar is removed and the alveoli are repaired they'll never be as efficient as they were

cigarette smoke also contains the addictive drugs and poison nicotine. nicotine causes the blood vessels in the lungs to tighten, which slows the blood flow in the lungs making the gas exchange in the alveoli less efficient.

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