Background Information- Philippines
- 7000 islands.
- Lies in a belt of tropical cyclones and on a plate boundary (The dense
oceanic Philippines is being subducted beneath the Eurasion Plate.)
- Suffers from
heavy rainfall to due to monsoon climate.Flooding leads to landslides, as the area is deforested.
- 240 people per km2.High coastal population. E.g.Luzon province.
- 91 million population.
- $5000 per capita
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Background Information- California
40 million people
Economy is 6th best in the world
(Higher than France)
More than 70% of the people live within 50km of
the San Andreas fault
- 20% of LA residents live below the poverty line
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Volcanic Eruption- Philippines
Mt Pinatubo, June 1991
- Biggest the world had seen for 50 years.
- Tried to plan for it- made a video outlining
risks of Pyroclastic flows.
- 350 people died, 77 from lahas, some from
disease in the evacuee camps.
- 80,000 hectares of farmland buried in ash.
- 500,000 farmers lost their livelihoods.
- $710 million economic loss
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Volcanic Eruptiom- California
- Not been an eruption in California since 1915-Lassen park
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- July 1990
- 7.7 magnitude.
- 1666 dead.
- 3500 injured.
- $300 million economic loss.
- 100,000 homes destroyed.
- Two million people suffered as a result.
- Destroyed infrastructure including a dam
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Earthquake- Los Angeles
- 17th Jan 1994
- 6.7 magnitude
- San Fernando Valley, Northern LA
- Thousands of aftershocks 4-5
- 57 people died
- 1500 seriously injured
- 12500 buildings damaged (25% serious to
- 9000 homes + businesses no electricity for days. 20,000 without gas.48500 people without water
- .Damage to freeways- 30km traffic choked.
- $500 million damage
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Guinsaugon Landslide, Feb 2006
- The mudslide covered 3km2
- killed 1150 people.
- Physical causes: 2000mm of rain fell in 10 days
(In the dry season), La Nina probably caused this, a 2.6 mag earthquake struckand could of triggered it
- Human causes: Deforestation unbinding the soil,replacement of natural forest by shallow rooted trees.
- 1905-2007: 2604 people killed in landslides affected 310,000 people.
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- Earthquake induced.
- Steep unstable hillsides above Los Angeles surround it like a bowl, winter rain storms destabilise the ground.
- Geology-loosely consolidating sands and gravels and impermeable clays around Santa Monica.
- Building on steep slopes = further hazard
- 2003-campsite disasters are outside LA. Series of landslides kills 16. Wildfires removed vegetation = unstable
- The worst rainfall for 20 years increased the risk.
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- Common impact of typhoon rains.
- Squatter settlements on riverbanks vulnerable.
- Low-lying areas have inadequate drainage systems.
- July 1972: central and southern Luzon, most of Manila was underwater.
- 600 dead, 370,000 homeless, 250,000 hectares of rice damaged.
- In 1995 a flash flood on Mindanao island resulted in $20 million of
damage to infrastructure and agriculture.
- Mountainous regions also susceptible, as well as
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- Coastal floods link to storm surges-long beach recently devastated
- Flash floods (October-January)-encouraged by steep relief of drainage
basins and deforestation example: Sierra Nevada and coastal range.
- LA experiences flash floods every year-1995 was the worst.
- 1995-Heaviest snowfalls due to climate change and the El Nino led to minor avalanches and huge surges in spring months due to melt water.
- 1995-eight deaths-LA to San Francisco highway washed away
- 38 countiesdesignated emergency areas.
- Rivers have been heavily channelized will try toavoid flooding.
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- 1905-2007: there were six droughts and eight deaths.
- Six million people affected.
- April 1998 2.5 million affected
- 1986-1987 was the worst drought which affected the whole country.
- In 1989 there was a droughts where crops died.
- Major food shortages after the Pinatubo 1991 eruption.
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- Caused by anticyclones = dry air = dry weather.
Also caused by La Nina events.
- Winds from the Arizona Desert = no moisture = no precipitation.
- Overuse of water in naturally dry climate due to
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