Disaster hotspot- Vulnerable places at risk from two or more hazards- which California is.
California is in the USA-WC
It has mainily high populated towns and citys at risk from a variety of hazards.
The San Andreas Fault runs the full length of california- CONSERVITIVE PLATE BOUNDARY
This is when two playes are moving past eachother, the plates get locked together in places causing the pressure to build up- when they reliese it creates a jerk which releases the energy ans creates an EARTHQUAKE.
California has around 3 earthquakes a year measuring 5.5 or above on the Richter scale.
Past disasters include-SAN FRANCISCO EARTHQUAKE OF 1906- 7.8 ON THE RICHTER SCALE WHICH ALONG WITH FIRES DESTROYED MOST OF CITY.
Threats to California
Along side earthquakes, it is prone to a number of other disasters, including.......
California Droughts and Tsunamis.
-Long periods of high air pressure-anticyclones.- this means NO RAIN.
-They can also be caused by LA NINA EVENTS.
The most devistating effect of droughts in california is WILDFIRES!- dry vegetation is extreamily falmmable so fires spread quickly over wide areas.
WILD FIRES IN THE SOUTHEN COAST OF CALIFORNIA IN OCTOBER 2007 KILLED 22 PEOPLE AND DESTROYED 1300 HOMES.
TSUNAMIS in California-
They can be caused by earthquakes on the sea bed or landslides in the sea. AN EARTHQUAKE OFF THE COAST OF ALASKA IN 1964 CAUSED TSUNAMI TO STRIKE THE COAST OF NORTHEN CALIFORNIA, KILLING 12 PEOPLE IN CRESCENT CITY.
Landslides and volcanos in California.
Landalides occur on unstable steep land, this can be due to coastal erotion or extream weathering- These land slides can be triggered by eathquakes and cause a secandry disaster.
The risk of landslide disasters in california has increased due to building of infulstructure on and around steep slopes, as well as building on coastal land over looking the ocean- LA CONCHITA.
Volcanos in California-
There hasn't been a volcanic eruption since1915-LASSEN PEAK.
However there are volcanos being monotored for potential eruptions
-VOLCANOS AROUND MAMMOTH LAKE.
- More the 70% of it's population live within 50km of it's FAULT LINE.
-Lots of buildings are built on unstable land-this can lead to soil liquefication and an increased risk of landslides.-THIS WAS A MAJOR PROBLEM IN THE LOMA PRIETA EARTHQUAKE.
-Many buildings along the coast at risk from TSUNAMIS.
-It is as wealthy state however poor people do live within it-20% live below the poverty line.- THEY HAVE THE LOWEST CAPACITY TO COPE.
-California has a massive economy that will suffer largely from disasters.
A group of islands in South-East Aisa, with a vunrable populationat risk of a variety of hazards.
Volcanos and earthquakes in the Philippines.
-It is near a DESTRUCTIVE PLATE BOUNDARY- THE PHILIPPINE PLATE IS BEING SUBDUCTED BELOW THE EURASIAN PLATE.
-Mount PINATUBO is a volcano that erupted in 1991. Many people were evacuated, buildings collapsed and agricultural land was ruined by ash.
EARTHQUAKES IN THE PHILIPPINES-
The philipine and erasion plate can be looked together-when the release this creates eathquakes.
-They also occur alond the fault line.
-Eathquakes happen on a daily basis- too low to be felt
-AN EARTHQUAKE OCCURRED IN LUZAN ISLAND IN 1990 WITH A MAGMITUDE OF 7.8
KILLED OVER 1500 PEOPLE.
Landslides and Typhoons in the Philippines.
-Get a lot of rain, when it falls alot in a short space of time it causes landslide.
-They can also be triggered by eathquaks as a secondary hazard.
-LANDSLIDES ON LEYTE ISLAND IN 2006- RAINDED FOR 10 DAYS- A WHOLE VILLAGE WAS BURRIED INCLUDING SCHOOL- KILLED HUNDREDS.
TYPHOONS IN THE PHILIPPINES-
Around 10 every year.
-they develope in the percific ocean and move westwards over the island.
-TYPHOON XANGSANE- 2006-LOSS OF POWER AND WATER.
Tsunamis, droughts and flooding in the Philippines
-Earthquakes in any of the oceans around the islands can cause earthquakes-1976 earthquake magmitude 7.9 hit the coastline of MORO GULF-1000s were killed.
DROUGHTS IN THE PHILIPPINES-
-Some parts have distinct wet and dry seasons
FLOODING IN THE PHILIPPINES-
In the wet season they can be caused by typhoons and heavy rains.
Occur mostly in low lying areas-devistate crop yeilds.