Burger

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List some of the safe guards that Burger ued.

 •“The 150 volt solution”                                                                        •2-step subject screening process                                                       •Repeated reminders that subjects could withdraw at any time    •Lower voltage “sample shock”                                                  •Debrief occurred seconds after the study ended                                  •The “experimenter” was not an actor, but a clinical psychologist

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What was Burgers first step of his two-step screen

A: Six questions (created by 2 clinical psychologists)

“Have you ever been diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder?

Are you currently receiving psychotherapy? Are you currently taking any medications for emotional difficulties such as anxiety or depression? Answer ‘yes’ to any question - you were excluded from the study Have you studied Psychology?

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What was Burgers second step of his two-step scree

Four scales: Those who made it through the above questions were

then given the following scales to fill out:

Interpersonal Reactivity Index (extent to which you experience empathy for others - might you be less likely to obey?) Beck Anxiety Inventory Desirability of Control Scale (extent to which you like to “exercise control and to make their own decisions” - might these people be less likely to obey?) Beck Depression Inventory

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Describe Burgers interviewing safe guard.

Interviews: Questionnaires filled out in step 1 were given to a licensed clinical psychologist, who conducted an interview with the subjects (average: 30 minutes) “Of the 123 people who participated in this second screening process, 47 (38.2%) were excluded from the study by the clinical psychologist” 

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what were Burgers experimental conditions?

Base Condition: pretty much the same experimental setup as Milgram: Rigged drawing to determine “learner” and “teacher” Confederate gets strapped into a chair with electrodes attached, etc. “Learner” explains that he had a “slight heart condition” “Teacher” is sat down in front of the “shock machine” and given 25 word pairs (ex: “strong-arm”) Pre-recorded sounds were played at pre-determined shock switches (ex: grunts) 150 volt level: “Ugh. That’s all. Get me out of here.  I told you I had heart trouble.  My heart’s starting to bother me now.  Get me out of here please.  My heart’s starting to bother me.  I refuse to go on.  Let me out.”

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Details of Burgers base condition.

Base Condition  The “experimenter” gave the same prods as in the Milgram study: “Please go on” or “Please continue” The experiment requires that you continue” It is absolutely essential that you continue” You have no other choice, you must continue” The experiment ended when either: The teacher refused to continue The teacher read the next item on the list of word pairs after having pressed the 150 volt switch (a behavior which would indicate that the subject would probably continue asking questions and shocking the learner and, in Burger’s estimation, would have continued all the way to 450 volts) An immediate debriefing occurred

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Details of Burgers modelled refusal

Modelled Refusal Condition Same basic setup as in condition 1 except: Two people would act as teachers: the real subject and, unknown to the real subject, a confederate of the experimenter who would also act as a teacher. This “second teacher” was always chosen as “teacher 1” and he or she would begin asking the questions and administering the “shocks” while “teacher 2” (the real subject) watched. After hearing the “ugh” sound when the 75 volt switch was pressed, the teacher/confederate said, “I don’t know about this”.  The experimenter replied, “Please continue”.  The teacher/confederate said, “I don’t think I can do this” and pushed his chair away from the shock machine.  The experimenter asked the real subject to pick up where teacher 1 had left off The teacher/confederate sat quietly during the rest of the study, avoiding eye contact with the real subject.

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What was Burgers results?

Base condition: 70% had to be stopped after administering the 150 volts (prediction: they would have gone on to 450 volts) Modeled Refusal Condition: 63% had to be stopped after administering the 150 volts No statistical difference between the two conditions (this is contrary to Burger’s prediction that modeled refusal would decrease obedience)

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Burgers Modelled refusal

Modelled Refusal Condition Same basic setup as in condition 1 except: Two people would act as teachers: the real subject and, unknown to the real subject, aconfederate of the experimenter who would also act as a teacher. This “second teacher” was always chosen as “teacher 1” and he or she would begin asking the questions and administering the “shocks” while “teacher 2” (the real subject) watched. After hearing the “ugh” sound when the 75 volt switch was pressed, the teacher/confederate said, “I don’t know about this”. The experimenter replied, “Please continue”. The teacher/confederate said, “I don’t think I can do this” and pushed his chair away from the shock machine. The experimenter asked the real subject to pick up where teacher 1had left off The teacher/confederate sat quietly during the rest of the study, avoiding eye contact with the real subject

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