Bread, cereals, flour, oats




  • Bread is a popular staple food eaten on a daily basis. It is used to make many light meals such as lunchtime sandwiches.
  • Bread styles and types vary greatly and include white bloomerssliced wholemeal loavescrusty rolls and pitta bread.
  • Bread is made by mixing strong flour (which is high in gluten) with liquid (water or milk) and a raising agent such as yeast. Salt is added and a small amount of sugar and fat can also be used. The ingredients are mixed until a dough is formed, which is the kneaded and shaped. Bread dough must be proved before baking.


  • Bread provides the nutrients carbohydratesprotein, some B group vitaminscalcium and iron. Wholemeal varieties will provide dietary fibre (NSP).


  • Bread storage depends on the type of bread. It can be well wrapped and frozen for longer storage: stored in a sealed paper bag or bread bin for short term storage if purchased fresh from a baker's; or kept in its plastic wrapper, if purchased from a supermarket, and in a cool dry place.
  • Bread should not be refrigerated as it can affect the texture and flavour.
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  • Wheat, oats, rye and barley are some of the cereals grown in the uk.
  • A cereal is referred to as a grass with starchy edible grains or seeds used as food.
  • Cereals are processed into other raw ingredients or foods before we eat or use them.
  • Wheat is a common cereal used in many popular foods such as bread and breakfast cereals, e.g. Weetabix.


  • Cereals are a good source of dietary fibre (NSP) and carbohydrates, providing energy in the diet.
  • Other nutrients provided by cereals include protein (Low Biological Value), B vitamins and vitamin E, some iron and fat.


  • Cereals should be stored in an airtight container to prevent them becoming stale and in a cool, dry place.
  • Always use older cereals first and do not combine old and new together.
  • Incorrect storage can lead to a release of odours, mould developing and bacteria contamination, which could lead to food poisoning.
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  • Wheat is the main cereal processed to produce a variety of flours.
  • Wheat flour can be made of different strengths: strong flour is high in gluten and used in bread making; weak  flour is used for baked goods, e.g. cakes and biscuits.
  • Wholemeal, self-raising and brown are examples of different wheat flour types.
  • Different flour types have different extraction rates, which states how much of the wholegrain of wheat has been used in the milling of the flour. White flour has an extraction rate of 70-75% as the germ and bran are removed during the milling process.


  • Wholemeal flour is a good source of dietary fibre (NSP) and starchy carbohydrates.
  • Strong flour has a high protein content.
  • White flour is fortified in the UK with B vitamins thiamine and niacin as well as minerals, calcium and iron.


  • Oats should be stored in a dry, cool area and in an airtight container once opened.
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  • Oats are grains from the cereal plant.
  • A protective husk covers the oat grain, which is removed before the oats can be used as a food.
  • Oats can be ground to produce a fine flour. They are also rolled or crushed to produce oatmeal. Rolled oats are used to make porridge.


  • Oats provide mainly starchy carbohydrates, The energy provided will be a slow-release energy source. Oats also provide soluble dietary fibre (NSP).
  • Protein, calcium, fat, iron and some B group vitamins are also provided in smaller amounts.


  • Oats should be stored in a dry, cool area and in an airtight container once opened.
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