BIOLOGY

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  • Created by: Jay
  • Created on: 05-01-11 18:50

page 1- fitness and blood pressure

Healthy is being free of any infections or diseases, whereas fit is a measure of how well you can perform physical tasks.

Blood is pumped around your body under pressure

High blood pressure= blood vessels to burst, can lead to strokes, brain and kidney damage

low blood pressure= poor circulation can cause the tissues to not get all the food & oxygen required, can lead to feeling dizzy and end up fainting

blood is pumped around body under pressure

  • blood leaves heart flows through arteries
  • splits into thousands of tiny capillaries
  • blood then flowsa back through veins
  • blood pressure gets lower throught the system
  • blood pressure measured in mm of mercury (mmHg)
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page 2- respiration

'RESPIRATION NOT BREATHING IN AND OUT'

Respiration is the process of releasing energy from glucose which happens constantly in every cell

aerobic respiration needs plenty of oxygen

  • aerobic measn with oxygen adn its most efficient way to release energy from glucose
  • word equation: Glucose + oygen------> carbon dioxide + water (+energy)
  •                          C6H12  + 602    -------> 6C02 + 6H20 (+energy)

Anaerobic resporation

happens when you usually do vigourous exercise, body cant supply enough oxygen

word equation: Glucose ----> Lactic acid (+ energy)

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page 3 eating healthy

A BALANCED DIET IS ONE WHICH SUPPLIES ALL YOUR ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS

There are six essetial nutrients you need:

  • carbohydrates-pasta, bread-provide energy (glucose)
  • fats-acts as energy store and provides insulation
  • proteins-needed for growht and repair of tissue-meat, fish, chicken
  • vitamins-variou functions e.g vitamin c needed to prevent scurvy
  • minerals-various functions e.g. iron to make haemoglobin for healthy blood
  • water-need a constant supply, loose it through weeing, breathing and sweating

turn over

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page 4- diet problems

EATING TOO MUCH CAN LEAD TO OBEISITY

  • defined as being 20% or more over recomended bofy weight
  • too much sugary or fatty food and little exercise are main causes

EATING TO LESS CAN ALSO CAUSE PROBLEMS

  • cause a condition called Kwashiokor (swollen stomach)
  • happens in poorer countries e.g africa dont get the essetials they need

BMI (BODY MASS INDEX)

  • This inicates if your under- or overweight
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page 5- digestion

BIG MOLECULES ARE BROKEN DOWN INTO SMALLER ONES

THERE ARE TTHHRREE MAIN TYPES OF DIGESTIVE ENZYME

  • 1- carbohydrases ( break down big carbohydrates into simple sugars)
  • 2- Proteases ( convert proteins into AMINO ACIDS)
  • Lipases ( convert fats into fatty acuds and glycerol)

THE SMALL MOLECULES CAN THEN DIFFUSE INTO THE BLOOD

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page 6- infectious disease

INFECTIOUS DISEASES ARE CAUSED BY PATHOGENS

pathogens are micro-oraganisms that cause disease, there are four types

  • 1) Fungi- e.g. athletes foot
  • 2) Bacteria- e.g.cholera
  • 3) viruses- e.g. flu
  • 4) Protozoa- e.g. dysentery

the symptoms of an infectious disease are caused by cell damage or by toxins

malaria is an example of an infectious disease

YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM DEALKS WITH THE PATHOGENS

They have 3 lines of attack:1) consuming them ( white blood cells engulf them), 2) producing antioxins ( antitoxins counter the effect of any poisons/toxins), 3) producing the antibodies

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page 7- other health conditions

HEALTH DIORDERS CAN BE USED IN VAARIOUS WAYS

cancer is caused by the body cellls not working properly e.g. diabetes and cancer

drugs developed to treat disease need to be tested before

  • computer models are sometimes used- theser simulate a human's response to a drug, the drugs are then developed further by testing on human tissues, then the last step is to develop and test the drug using animals, it must be tested on 2 different living mammals.
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