BIOLOGY

HideShow resource information

DRUGS

what is a drug: a chemical that effects you body in some way. 

what is a recreational drug: a drug that you take for no reason

what is a medical drug: a drug you take which is perscribed by a doctor and it improves your health.

what are the effects of drugs:drugs are chemicals that effects your body in some way. Each drug will have a slightly different effect on the body

SYNAESE: A gap between a nerve

1 of 12

ADAPTATIONS + COMPETION

What is adaptation: The process whereby a species evolves characteristics that enable it to survive in a paticular habitat

.Adaptations allow species to live successfully in their habitat 

.Species living in different habitats need different adaptations

COMPETITION:

.Competition is competing for food and shelter 

There are two types of competition;Interspecifc (between individuals of different species) and Intraspecific (between individuals of the same species and only the best genes are passed to the next generation)

2 of 12

EXTREMOPHILES

PHILE-likes

PHOBIC-dislikes

HYDRO-water

THERMO-heat

BARO-pressure 

HALO-salt

CHEMO-chemicals

SYNTHESIS-making

Water melton snow (snow algae)--has a tail called flagella--red pigment allowing to survive in extreme winters

Hydrothermal vents--most organisms die above temperaures 40 degrees--this is because their proteins change shape and no longer function and their cells dies

COWS- cows have lots of bacteria

these bacteria have very little oxygen and cant respire aerobically

instead they have adapted to repire anaerobically 

this occurs in other places such as deep underground

some bacteria also use fermentation as a source of energy production

3 of 12

CHANGING ENVIRONMENTS

organisms have adaptations that help them survive well in particular conditions, so if those conditions change it may make it more difficult for them to live in that place, or it may make it easier for other organisms to come into the area and compete. Either way, this may cause a change in the distribution of species.

Many environmental groups are carrying out long-term surveys of organisms to help the effects of climate change

Environmental conditions are always changing. In the UK, weather changes with seasons

4 of 12

POLLUTION INDICATORS

Acid rain-destroy's tree's, kills plants, kills animals, makes rivers acidic

Fertilizers- run into rivers and make the rivers acidic  and can kill animals whom live near rivers

Car exhausts- carbon dioxide going into the air 

Lichens are different form of organims. They are a symbiotic relationship between an algae and a fungus. They are often used as pollution indicators. They grow on trees and walls. They can be surveyed to see which species grow where. More sulpher intolerent species are dying out in rural areas.

Bloodworms  are red becuase they contain lots of haelomoglobin. Because of their haelomoglobin they can survive even when there's very little oxygen. Sometimes they're the only thing you'll find in polluted areas

Mayfly's are very fussy about where they live and detest polluted water. The presence of Mayflys and several other species can tell you how much oxygen is present in the water. The less dissolved oxygen, the lower the biodiversity. 

5 of 12

NATURAL RECYCLING

.Decay is the breaking down of organic matter

.Basically organisms like plants and animals rotting after they have died

.This is how nutrients originially taken from the soil by plants get returned to the soil

.Decay is caused by bacteria and fungi

.Microoganisms dont digest things in the same way as complicated organisms

.Bacteria and fungi secrete chemicals that breakdown the dead thing

.The products of the breakdown are then absorbed by the bacteria and fungi

.The things that the microbes dont want back into the soil

.

6 of 12

CARBON CYCLE

glucose + oxygen --- carbon dioxide + water + energy  RESPIRATION 

carbon dioxide + water -----light------glucose + oxygen   PHOTOSYNTHESIS

 ANIMAL--RESPIRATION---CO2-----EXCRETION----EATING----DEATH

 PLANT---RESPIRATION---PHOTOSYNTHESIS---DEATH

 AIR---CO2---RESPIRATION (FROM ANIMALS AND PLANTS)---PHOTOSYNTHESIS (FROM PLANTS)

DEATH---DECOMPOSERS +DETRITUS FEEDERS (BACTERIA,MAGGOTS,FLIES,FUNGI)

FOSSIL FEULS--POWER STATIONS + CARS----COMBUSTIONS

7 of 12

GENE BASICS

Characteristics=A feature of an organism

Inherit=get genes from our parents that code for characteristics

Gamete=the sex cells

Chromosone=humans have 23 and they are groups of genes

DNA=The "blueprint" for living things

Gene=The particular bit of DNA that carry the instructions for a protein

Continuous=Can have any numerical value

Catagoric=Described by labels

8 of 12

REPRODUCTION

where does it happen?

SEXUAL-(plant) flowers 

(animal) the genitals

ASEXUAL-(plant)produced by the stem--runners

(animal)produce eggs--sometimes

Cells involved

SEXUAL-(plant)pollen and egg

(animal)sperm and the egg

ASEXUAL-(plant)any cells

(animal)any cell or egg cell

How many chromosones?

SEXUAL-(plant)half the chromosones in each cell

(animal)same

ASEXUAL-(plant+animal)full amount of chromosones 

Variaton

LOTS

ASEXUAL-no genetic variation 

why? 

random sorting of genes

ASEXUAL-dont have the random sorting of genes

9 of 12

ATTACK OF THE CLONES

TISSUE CLONING

.tissue sample from any region of an adult plant is cultured

.undifferential cellus form

.cellus seperated and single cells cultured

.further culturing generates raw plants

ANIMAL TISSUE CLONING

.sperm is taken from a bull from a high yeild herd

.cow is artifically inseminated with sperm

.Z Y gotes develop into embryo in cow then removed from the uterus

.embryo's are split into several smaller embryo's each of which can grow into a new calf

.Embryo's are placed into the uteruses if foster mothers

EMBRYO CLONING

.female A

.body cell taken from sheep A

. DNA extracted

.SAME FOR SHEEP B (but nuecleus removed from sheep B)

.DNA from sheep A fused with egg cell from sheep B

.fused cell develop into embryo which is placed in uterus of foster mother

.Lamb is clone of sheep A


10 of 12

EVOLUTION

Evolution is the process by which change occurs in the heritable characteristics (genes) of a population over succsessive generations. Evolution results in diversity at every level. This process happens naturally over a long period of time. The results is a huge amount of diversity even between related groups with a common ancestor

Biodiversity is the number of different species in a given area or "species richness", but it can also be diversity within species

11 of 12

DARWINS THEORY

Darwin beleived that animals and humans had adapted their features to their environment and what food they ate. He also beleived that they're characteristics came from their DNA, compared to Lamarks theory. He proved this by going to the Galapogus Islands and discovering different types of birds with different shaped beaks,depending on what they ate.

12 of 12

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Science resources:

See all Science resources »See all Biology resources »