Beliefs in Society- Revision- Unit 3- Writers

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  • Created by: Chelsea
  • Created on: 16-01-13 11:11

WRITERS;

COMTE- 

RELIGION AND SOCIETY / SOCIAL CHANGE

society passes through three stages- in the theological stage religion provided explanations of the world. 

SECULARISATION

by the positivist stage, scientific explanations replace the religious ones

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WRITERS;

DURKHEIM- 

RELIGION AND SOCIETY / SOCIAL CHANGE

provides social order (regulation) by reinforcing collective conscience and helps with social stability (intergration) collective worship maintains society. 

SECULARISATION

as the division of labour increases, religion loses its ability to maintain social order- but still remains. 

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WRITERS;

PARSONS- 

RELIGION AND SOCIETY / SOCIAL CHANGE

religion provides value consensus, (socialisation), explains the unexplainable, provides comfort in times of stress and anxiety 

SECULARISATION

structural differentiation causes religion to lose functions to other institutions. pure functions remain

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WRITERS;

MALINOWSKI- 

RELIGION AND SOCIETY / SOCIAL CHANGE

religion provides rituals that reduce anxiety e.g. the trobriand islanders- life crisis 

SECULARISATION

as knowledge increases there is less we find impossible to explain

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WRITERS;

BELLAH- 

RELIGION AND SOCIETY / SOCIAL CHANGE

in modern multi-faith society, religion can no longer provide its functions. civil religion takes over, and different religions are united. 

SECULARISATION

civil religion is evidence of secularisation, religion can no longer claim a monopoly of truth people now have 'pick'n'mix' spirituality 

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WRITERS;

MARX- 

RELIGION AND SOCIETY / SOCIAL CHANGE

religion maintains capitalism- legitimises heirachy- poverty - and exploitation. the 'opium of the people keep the masses quiet.  

SECULARISATION

once the working class revolt the need for religion will disappear. communisum will replace capitalism and the source of pain will disappear. 

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WRITERS;

MADURO- 

RELIGION AND SOCIETY / SOCIAL CHANGE

religion loses its negative functions which are taken over by capitalism. religion is capable of causing revolutionary change for the working class- liberation theology. 

SECULARISATION

can be used as evidence against the secularisation arguement, religion takes on functions e.g. government reverses the disengagement

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WRITERS;

WEBER- 

RELIGION AND SOCIETY / SOCIAL CHANGE

religion provides an explanation for the world, it aids social change it encourages rational thinking which produces capitalism (protestant ethic). 

GROWTH OF NRM'S, SECTS AND CULTS 

sects develop as a theodicy of disprivelige among materially deprived groups

SECULARISATION

the rational thinking that is necessary to create capitalism will ultimately mean the end of religion

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WRITERS;

DE BEAUVOIR / EL SAADAWI- 

RELIGION AND SOCIETY / SOCIAL CHANGE

religion is patriachal- it dominates women and legitimises inequality, women put up with inequality as they believe they will be rewarded later. 

SECULARISATION

once women achieve equality, they will no longer need religion to provide comfort

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WRITERS;

STARK AND BAINBRIDGE- 

RELIGION AND SOCIETY / SOCIAL CHANGE

religion provides compensators for the problems of life

GROWTH OF NRM'S, SECTS AND CULTS 

nrm's are the renewal of religion in modern society

SECULARISATION

religion will contunue as people will always need compensators. low attendance is not proof of a decline in religion

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WRITERS;

BERGER- 

RELIGION AND SOCIETY / SOCIAL CHANGE

religion helps people understand reality, it legitimises shared meanings and helps to make sense of the world 

GROWTH OF NRM'S, SECTS AND CULTS 

people are exposed to a wider range of religions in modern society

SECULARISATION

religion is increasingly unable to influence people's lives due to rationalisation, mystery and magic are removed

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WRITERS;

TROELTSCH- 

GROWTH OF NRM'S, SECTS AND CULTS 

provides definitions for the differences between sects, cults and denominations

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WRITERS;

WILSON- 

GROWTH OF NRM'S, SECTS AND CULTS 

sects develop as a result of social change, this affecting the marginalised groups

SECULARISATION

sects are evidence of secularisation which occurs during modernisation

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WRITERS;

WALLIS- 

GROWTH OF NRM'S, SECTS AND CULTS 

defines nrm's - world accom - world reject - world affirm

SECULARISATION

nrm's are a privatised expression of belief 

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WRITERS;

MILLER AND HOFFMAN- 

RELIGION AND SOCIETY / SOCIAL CHANGE

women are more religious due to differential roles and socialisation

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WRITERS;

MARTIN- 

SECULARISATION

people went to church for respectability, he argues against secularisation in latin american countries. 

' THERE WAS NO GOLDEN AGE OF RELIGION '

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WRITERS;

YINGER- 

RELIGION AND SOCIETY / SOCIAL CHANGE

religion helps people to understand the world

GROWTH OF NRM'S, SECTS AND CULTS 

world rejecting nrm's isolate themselves and this makes them likely to die out

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WRITERS;

BRUCE- 

GROWTH OF NRM'S, SECTS AND CULTS 

sects develop as a process of modernisatio, world rej. appeal to the young middle class 

SECULARISATION

religion has declined from its height in the middle ages due to modernisation

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WRITERS;

NEIBUHR- 

GROWTH OF NRM'S, SECTS AND CULTS 

cults die out quickly due to lack of commitment, sects develop into denominations

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WRITERS;

MCGUIRE- 

RELIGION AND SOCIETY / SOCIAL CHANGE

four factors detirmine whether religion can bring social change

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WRITERS;

DAVIE- 

SECULARISATION

believing without belonging, low attendance doesnt always show lack of faith

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WRITERS;

HEELAS- 

GROWTH OF NRM'S, SECTS AND CULTS 

new age movements appeal to middle clas, mainly women

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