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Crime and deviance
with theory and
methods

Exam: 20th June 2011

2:00 pm ­ 2 hours (60%)

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1. Theories of crime and
deviance
Key questions: Key information

1. What is crime and Definitions of crime and
deviance? deviance, social construction
and biological explanations.
Functionalism ­ Durkheim &
2. Why do people commit Merton
crime? Subcultural strain theory
Labelling theory
3. What happens if a person Marxism and…

Page 3

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Crime Deviance Deviant not
criminal
Any act which breaks Behaviour which Deviant and
the laws of society, moves away from Burping, not criminal
such as murder or rape. conventional queuing
norms and values Rape,
Social control is murder,
such as burping Criminal not deviant
enforced by agencies paedophilia
and farting…

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Durkheim ­ Key ideas Crime and society Positive functions of
crime
1. Crime is inevitable and Society is only healthy when
necessary to society. social order is maintained 1. Re-marking social
through the police and boundaries ­ affirms
2. Crime has positive
courts. We need a small social norms and…

Page 5

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Merton - Key idea
1. The goals of
People engage in society ­ American
deviant behaviour Deviance is the
Dream
when they are result of the
unable to achieve strain between
socially approved 2. Your legitimate
goals. means of achieving
them


1. Conformity Strain produces
Five frustration which creates a…

Page 6

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TYPE Goal of Means Type
Success
Conformity Accepts Legitimate Most people
(Normal)
Innovation Accepts Illegitimate Gangsters (Tony
(Criminal) Montana)
Ritualism Rejects Legitimate People in dead end
(Deviant) jobs.
Retreatism Rejects Illegitimate Habitual drug user
(Deviant) or drunk
Rebellion Rejects for Illegitimate Karl Marx, Martin
(Deviant) alternative Luther King,

Criticisms
Why…

Page 7

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Subcultural group Albert Cohen ­ Status
frustration
A group with its own Cloward and Ohlin ­
distinctive norms and A Subcultural strain theory Opportunity structures
values, sometimes which argues lower class people
A Subcultural strain
although not always are frustrated because they
theory like Cohen but
deviant. want to be…

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Overview
Lower-class feel the strain
Strain theory Robert Merton and commit utilitarian
crime (money)

Lower-class feel the
strain but start
Albert Cohen subculture and commit
Subcultural non-utilitarian crime

Strain theory
Lower-class feel the
Cloward and strain but what crime
Ohlin they commit depends
on the area they live in

Lower-class…

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Interactionism Howard Becker Labelling process
Doesn't focus on the Focuses on the process of a 1. A label is attached
structures of society but person and act getting by police and courts.
how people and society labelled as deviant. He
interact and how this argues that no act is 2.…

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Blue collar crime White collar crime Corporate crime
Crimes committed by Crimes committed by Crimes carried out on behalf of
manual factory workers office workers a company such as tax evasion or
(working class), these (middle/upper class) toxic waste dumping.
are street crimes like like fraud, these are
Occupational crime…

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