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Beliefs in society
Revision pack

Exam: 21st Jan 2011
2:00 pm ­ 1 1/2 hours (40%)

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1. Theories of science, religion
and ideology
Key questions Key information

Theories of Religion:
What is the role and Functionalism - Durkheim, Malinowski, Parsons and
purpose of religion? Marxism & Neo- Marxism ­ Gramsci & Maduro

What are other Characteristics of science, Ideology and religion
Karl popper…

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Substantive Functional Emile Durkheim
Sacred and profane
definition definition (1912)
Durkheim found tribes treated most
To be a religion To be a religion it Did a study of
things as ordinary (profane) but some
it must have a must have a social the Arunta
things were set apart as forbidden…

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Marxism Exploitation · From the product:
We put out blood sweat
A Structuralist theory Religion is a tool used by the
and tears into things
which says religion is Bourgeoisie to convince them to then they are taken
bad because it is used accept low paid jobs. away from us.…

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Neo-Marxism Karl Marx
A Structuralist theory Marx believe religion
inspired by Marxism could never be used by
which updates these the working class to
ideas for the modern change society. It is
day part of the system which
distorts reality

Liberation Theology
Created in the 50's and 60's as Theories…

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Feminism Patriarchy
Evidence of Patriarchy
A Structuralist theory The dominance
which says religion is of men over Religious Places of
bad because it is a women in all organisations worship
patriarchal institution aspects of
that reflects and society Men hold all position of Women often
continues the inequality power in…

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Features of science Features of religion
Subjective (based on
Karl popper (1959)
Objective (free from bias)
feelings and emotions) Popper says science is so great
Based on reason
Based on faith because it is an open belief
Theories are tested by system that can be criticised.
systematic observation Theories are…

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Two main problems
Thomas Kuhn (1970)
Disagrees with Popper
Scientific knowledge If Scientific and
both about how
never really religious knowledge
valuable scientific
progresses or cannot be compared with
knowledge is and how
develops it just each other how can we
it is gained
changes. say one is better than…

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How do we get scientific Flat earth theory vs.
knowledge? Round earth theory

1. A paradigm is set with 1. The earth is flat.
shared assumptions. 2. Investigations into the
2. The paradigm is edge of the world.
unquestioned. 3. Explorers travel to the
3. Contradictory evidence edge of the…

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Definition Marxism
All ideologies have the following
A worldview or set of ideas The problem is
and values about how the ruling class
1. They think society has a world works. Often the term ideology creates
central problem. is associated with distortion false class
and biased ideas but…


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