What is a vertibrate?
- vertibrates are any living organism with a backbone
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How are vertibrates put into groups depending on t
- How the animal takes in oxygen (lungs, gills, or through the skin)
- Thermoregulation- maintains own temperature (homeotherms) or their temperature varies with their surroundings (poikilotherm)
- Reproduction- Internal or external fertisation. Lay eggs (ouiporous) or give birth to live young (viviparous)
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What are the different groups of vertebrates?
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How do antagonistic pairs work? Give examples.
- An antagonistic pair of muscles create movment when one (the prime mover) contracts and the other (the antagonist) relaxes.
- E.g. Quadriecps and hamstrings in the leg and Biceps and triceps in the arm
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Recall the strucutre of a joint and what the compo
- Ligament- joins bone to bone and stablises the joint
- Tendon- joins muscle to bone in order to enable movement
- Cartilage- redues friction, acts as a shock absorber and is a smooth protective surface
- Synovial Fluid (produced by the synovial membrane) - lubricates the joint
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Describe: Abduction, adduction, extention, Flexion
- Abduction is the movment away from the mid-line of the body
- Adduction is the movment towards the mid-line of the body
- Extention is the straightening of the limbs at the joint
- Flexion is the bending of the limbs at a joint
- Rotation is a circlar movement around a fixed joint
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Factors surronding fitness
- Raising heart rate
- Tones the body and stregthens the muscles
- Lung capacity increases
- strengthens the diaphragm and incostal muscles
- Decreases the risk of of certain diseases
- Strengthens bone density
- Muscles around the heart become stonger
- Linked to the cardiovascular system: heart ,lungs, blood vessels
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History that needs to be disclosed before excerise
- Illness- Depending on the illness is will impact on the type of excerise and the duration
- Injures- To prevent further injury and then they can taylor a program to fit your needs
- Smoker- Links in with the cardiovascular system. Damage could be done.
- Family medical history- Underlying problems such as heart conditions
- Diet- They need to know so diet can be improved and altered to fit in with the exercise regime.
- BMI- Links into obesity. Meaning targets can be made to lose wieght
- Blood pressure and heart rate- This is known as a baseline test to see what improvements could be made
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- A Par-Q is a form of physical examination. The Par-Q tests a persons physical rediness to begin a new work our routine.
- Common questions focas on- age, how active you are, heart deseases, chlorestol levels, if you have diabeties, if you have high blood pressure and if you are perscribbed drugs for any reason.
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What is the equation for BMI?
- BMI= body mass (kg) / [height(m)]2
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How do sprains occur and what are the symtoms?
- Usally occurs when you over strech your liagment by twisting your ankle or knee
- Symptoms include- Redness and swelling, bruising, difficulty walking, throbbing and cramping pains
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- Rest- keep wieght of the injury and immobileize the joint
- Ice- reduce swelling and slow down the flow of blood to the injured area. This avoids damaging the tissue. Ice should be applied indrectly using a tea towel.
- Compression- involves wrapping a bandage around the injury to reduce swelling. Bandage should be 'snug' not tight
- Elevation- means raising the injured area. This reduces swelling by helping to keep excess fluid away from the damaged area
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What is a physiotherapist?
- Treat a wide range of muscle and ligment injures using physical theropy, massage and manipulation. The patients could have suffered from heart attacks, strokes and people with injurees or disabilities.
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