Biology 7.1

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  • Created by: Becca.
  • Created on: 19-06-16 20:05

Exercise Programmes

Medical History Assessment including:family medical history, previous treatment, current physical activities, current sympoms, alcohol/tabacco consumption

Heart Rate: measured in beats per minute (bpm), average resting heart rate = 60-80bpm, heart rate increases during exercise (to remove waste, provide oxygen to cells and muscle)

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Joints and Movement

Skeleton: protects internal organs, provides support, enables movement

Muscles: tissue that can contract and relax to cause movement, in antagonistic pairs (one relaxes when the other contracts), can only move bone in one direction

Joint: allows smooth movement, reduces the effect of wear and tear 

Synovial fluid: lubricates joint, reduces friction

Tendons (connects muscle to bone): transmit force from contracting onto bone, strong, fibrous and flexible tissue

Cartilage: prevents bones from rubbing

Ligaments (connects bone to bone): stabilises joint during movement, strong, fibrous and elastic tissue

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Injuries

Sports injuries generally caused by: excess exercise, over exertion, strenuous exercise without warming up

Sports injuries include: sprain, dislocation, torn tendons, torn ligaments

Sprain (an overstretched ligament) symptoms: swelling, bruising, pain, redness

"..." treatment: R ice, I ce (prevents swelling), C ompression (prevent swelling, further damage and support joint), E levation (lower blood pressure and prevent swelling)

Physiotherapy: treats skeletal-muscular injuries, exercise programs help to increase movement, flexibility and strength

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Body mass Index (BMI)

Weight(kg) / [Height(m)]²

Assesses weight and fitness 

It is inaccurate because muscle is heavier than fat and is not included into the equation

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Measuring Fitness

Accurate: true reading, Repeatable: same results everytime

Heartrate: two fingers inside the wrist, increases with exercise/(resting rate) decreases with fitness BUT easy to lose count, thumb has it's own pulse

Blood pressure: blood pressure monitor, increases with exercise/decreases with fitness BUT monitor could be damaged, pressure changes with stress/anger etc.

Recovery period: time taken for heartrate to return to resting rate after exercise, decreases with fitness BUT can be erratic, easy to lose count (heartrate issues)

Body fat proportion: use callipers to pinch and measure layer of fat, decreases with fitness BUT inaccurate (difficult to determine)

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