B451 Key Processes

  • Created by: Bolt 775
  • Created on: 18-05-17 14:22

Developing skills and techniques

  • Improves range of difficulty, quality of the skills and techniques.

  • Developing consistency, precision, control and fluency. For example in basketball your shooting will be more accurate and your arm action in the shot more fluid if you practice hard each day.

Decision Making

  • Selecting the right skills to use.

  • Refining and adapting (doing the skills without coach telling you to)

  • Recognise hazards and risks.

  • Identify what needs more practice.

  • Recognise why your team's not winning.
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Evaluating and Improving

  • Being able to analyse performance and identify strengths and weaknesses in personal and others performance.  For example watching a tennis player and identifying a fault in the performer’s forehand but also recognising that they have a good serve.

  • Making decisions about how to improve, and acting on the decisions.

  • Being clear in what you hope to achieve.

Physical and Mental Capacity 

  • Physical and mental capacity is your fitness level.

  • Develop physical strength, stamina speed and flexibility to be able to cope with different types of exercise. For example following a fitness programme that gives good all around fitness benefits.

  • Mental determination to succeed motivation. For example

  • having enough motivations to attend a challenging exercise class
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Making informed decisions about lifestyle

  • Being able to identify the types of physical activity that are best suited to you and types of roles you might like to take on for example, as a performer, coach or official.

  • It involves you making choices about involvement in healthy physical activity, for example, choosing an activity that helps with strengthening your heart such as long-distance running.

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Roles regulations and codes of conduct


  • Perform to the best they can. / Perform to a high standard 
  • Use skills / Play within rules


  • Train players / improve game / Pick Team

  • Prepare players mentally / Motivation


  • Ensure safety 
  • Check equipment and rules

  • Enforce rules / Be fair

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The role of a motivator

If players are motivated they will perform. A coach needs to create a happy environment where athletes are understood and want to do well. There are lots of factors that motivate people in sport

These are some reasons as why people participate in sport and want to do well.

  • Young children want to win-rewards.

  • You feel better in yourself-Stress release.

  • Keep fit

  • Develop skills

  • Having right mindset to do better

  • Enjoyment

  • Social-making new friends
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A Role of a coach

How could you use these findings as a coach?

As a coach you could give awards to children or participants once they produced a certain skill successfully. This may motivate them to develop skills as they know they will get a prize for completion. This will also encourage them to keep fit, and they will have a sense of enjoyment and stress relief from work/school. The coaches understand that it is important for participants to make friends as they are teammates and they encourage and support each other.

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A role of a coach

The coach as an educator

As well as teaching skills and techniques, a coach is responsible for lifestyle education

What is meant by lifestyle education?

  • A coach might help them have a healthy lifestyle

  • Understands that sport releases stress.

  • Demonstrates the ethics of sport

  • Use of role models.

  • Benefits of stress relief and health

  • Develop their response of winning losing.

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A role of a Coach

Lifestyle education that a coach can deliver to his players?

  • Educate his players about a healthy lifestyle - 5 a day, sleeping patterns, stress relief. ect.

  • Educate his players about what they need to do to improve personally. Eg. In athletics a coach needs to set tasks to one athlete at a time, if someone needs to improve their speed he will tell them to do more speed repetitions outside the club.

  • Coaches tell performers to try their best if they do not win they understand as long as they have tried their best.

  • Coaches understand that participants need role models to achieve.

The coach as a role model:

A coach can be a very influential person. Often the performers’ reflect the coach’s attitudes and attributes. A coach needs to set high standards of professionalism and be able to trust their performers at all times.

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In badminton


  • Understood the rules

  • Used powershot movements

  • Did they have a good rally?


  • Do they know how to play the game? Do they know all the rules?

  • The coach need to give each team member improvement.


  • Set up equipment well.

  • Keep track of score.

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In badminton


  • Did they serve from the right side?


  • Did the coach give enough support?


  • Was the net straight?

  • Was the equipment set up properly?

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Decision making in different roles

Job descriptions:


A performer has to be dedicated, listen to their coach. Take on board the advice and improve next time.


A coach has to motivate their team, make sure their players are playing the game right, and help by giving advice.


An official has to set up courts, set up equipment, keep the score going and make sure it is a fair game.

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Rules regulations and codes of conduct

What do we mean by rules?

  • These are set by the national governing bodies for team racket and individual sports.

  • Other physical activities have their own rules relating to health and safety and fair practice.

What is a governing body?

Formed by people who form the rules. 265 governing bodies in the UK. Teams and clubs play subscription to the governing bodies who that administer to the sport on nationals as well as local scale.

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Who are the following governing bodies?

  • FA- Football association

  • LAT - Lawn Tennis Association

  • ASA - Amminer swimming assocaiation

  • AENA - All England Netball Association

  • BAGA -British Amiter Gymnastis Association

  • EFDS - English federation of disability sports.

 Select one governing body from the list above ASA, Amminer Swimming Association. Write 3 rules they have made.

  • Rule one: No body suit, must have a swimming costume

  • Rule Two: Finish stroke in a certain way.

  • Rule three: Can’t go before the whistle/go signal

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What do we mean by regulations?

There are specifications that relate to players and participants, officials, equipment, facilities and safe practice put in place by Governing bodies how things are done.

Give a brief example: RFU must ensure that all other persons are kept at a reasonable distance from the playing area by permanent or temporary barriers.

Why do we need rules, regulations and codes of behaviour?

All governing bodies have a code of behaviour relating to the ethics and behaviour of players officials, coaching, staff and spectators. To clarify the standards of behavior and values expected from anyone involved with the sport. Consequences of failing to meet the standards.

  • They help prevent injury.

  • The activity can be played fairly
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What is etiquette?

This is about the customs surrounding the rules and regulations of a physical activity. It is about what is socially acceptable in a particular culture. It involves an accepted (not always written) way of behaving. In sport it’s often referred to as sportsmanship.

  • Athletics- Runners will shake hands after race.

  • Cross country- Everyone is silent before the race.

  • Netball- Shake hands after game.

  • Swimming-Everyone is silent before race.

  • Snooker- If someone did a good shot the opponent taps the table

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Cardiovascular edurance

Cardiovascular Endurance is your body's ability to keep up the exercise that forces your Cardiovascular system to work its heart, lungs, and blood vessels, for the length of time. Together the heart and lungs fuel your body with exercise ensuring they have enough oxygen for them to work properly. It is the ability to exercise the whole body for a long period of time. And is about how much oxygen can get into the muscles. Ways to test Cardiovascular Endurance are The Copper Run this is where you run for as long as you can for twelve minutes. Another way to test Cardiovascular Endurance is to do the step up test. This is where you get a bench and do step ups on them for 5 minutes and someone counts how many steps you did within the time. Another way to test Cardiovascular endurance in the bleep test. All of these ways are accurate at testing Cardiovascular Endurance however The Copper run and the bleep test are used in the majority of schools.

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The benefits to an healthy active lifestyle

  • Healthy capillaries and, through exercise, an increase in capillary densities and efficiency.

  • A healthy heart that is less likely to suffer from heart disease and eventually through exercise, a lower resting heart rate.

  • Good blood circulation, with exercise this can increase the amount of blood pumped by the heart both at rest and during exercise.

  • Feeling energetic because of the uptake of oxygen by the body, maybe an increase of haemoglobin which helps carry oxygen along with an increase in red blood cells.

  • Feeling less tired both physically and mentally.
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Three uses of Cardiovascular endurance

Sporting performance

  • In cross-country you need cardiovascular Endurance to maintain the pace you are running.

  • In netball you need Cardiovascular Endurance to be able to keep on going for the whole game.

  • In aerobics you need a lot of Cardiovascular Endurance to keep on going.

Everyday life

  • At work or school you need cardiovascular Endurance to keep on going

  • When you are doing a massive food shop, you need Cardiovascular Endurance to carry on.

  • When you are walking the dog, you need Cardiovascular Endurance to carry on walking.
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Flexibility is one of the most important component of fitness. Without flexibility the muscles and joints would grow stiff and the movement would be limited. Flexibility is the ability to move a joint or muscle through the full range of motion. This is done by stretching your muscles. Ways to test flexibility are the sit and reach test. This is where you sit with you legs straight in front of you, and your feet against a board. You then stretch your arms parallel over the board to see how far you can stretch.  

The benefits to a healthy active lifestyle:

  • Ligaments and supporting tissues can stretch further. 
  • Increase in muscle temperature increases flexibility.

  • The more we develop stretching the more flexible you’ll become.
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Three uses of flexibility

Sporting performance:

  • Gymnastics - during tuck and splits

  • Trampolining - during straddle because you have to reach your legs.

  • Basketball - When you reach to shoot

Everyday Life:

  • Reaching for something in the cupboard.

  • When you tie your shoelaces you are bending down to the ground.

  • Walking - you need flexibility to be able to walk.

  • You have to bend to pick up a baby from the floor.
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Muscular Endurance

Muscular endurance is the ability to move your body repeatedly without getting tired. Ways to test muscular endurance is this sit up test. Someone holds your feet and makes you do as many sit-ups as you can in a certain time, the more you can do , the better your muscular endurance is.

Three uses of Muscular Endurance:

Sporting performance

  • Being able to continuously run for 40 minutes at the same pace without stopping.

  • Circuit training- being able to complete each station without tiring.

  • Being able to do set ups for 5 mins at the same pace without tiring.

Everyday Life:

  • You need muscular endurance to carry on working for hours and hours. 
  • You need muscular endurance if you were to walk to school
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Speed is the ability to move quickly across the ground or move limbs rapidly to grab or throw sit down start. (Flying start.) Ways to test speed in the 30m sprint.

The benefits to an healthy active lifestyle:

  • Your heart and lungs are more efficient

  • Your muscles more quickly because they have more energy available.

  • Your energy is available because your muscles are more efficient in producing energy.

  • Your joints are healthier and move more freely.
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Three uses of speed

The use of speed:

Sporting performance

  • In sprinting you need to have a quick start and a quick reaction time.

  • In netball you need to be able to think quickly and change position quickly to defend an opponent or catch a ball.

  • You need speed in long distance running, when you are coming to the 400 meters of a cross-country race you need to be able to have speed to pass the people that are tying and pick up a better position.

Everyday lifestyle:

  • When you are late for a bus you need speed to run to catch it.

  • You need speed when you are playing with children.

  • You need speed to to get to walk to places quicker.

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Strength is the ability is the maximum force you can apply eg. Shot put. Ways to test strength are the grip dynamometer.   

The benefits to an healthy active lifestyle:

  • An active lifestyle that includes exercise like cycling can enlarge slow-twitch fibres, which gives greater potential for energy production.

  • There are anaerobic benefits, with activities like sprinting causing the muscle to get bigger and stronger.

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Three uses of Strength

Sporting performance:

  • In shot-put you need a lot of strength as you are carrying something heavy and trying to throw it as far as possible.

  • Weights, you need to have strength to lift weights because otherwise you could injury yourselfs

  • You need to have strong legs to be able to run cross-country.

Everyday Life

  • You need strength to carry food shopping up-stairs or into your house.

  • You need strength to carry a child or a dog who is injured and needs help.

  • You need strength to lift a dining room chair.
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Warm Up

The warm up enables to prepare the body for exercise. It decreases your chances of injury and muscle soreness. There is also a release of adrenaline that will start the process of speeding up the delivery of oxygen to the working muscles. An increase in muscle temperature will help to ensure that there is energy and that the muscle becomes more flexible to prevent injury. Many believe that the warm-up can improve speed and strength of muscle contractions. Hold each warm up stretch for a minimum of 20-30 seconds.  

Eg. Jogging around a field followed by a series of stretches.

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Cool down

A cool down is important because it is light exercise after hard training. Which allows the oxygen to be flushed through the muscle tissue making the removal of lactic acid quicker. Cool-downs also prevent blood pooling in the veins which can cause dizziness. The cool down speeds up the removal of lactic acids and other waste products. A cool down also prevents stiffness and soreness and any resulting injuries.

Once you have finished exercising you should gradually allow your heart rate and breathing to lower to a comfortable level where you can talk without getting breathless. Light aerobics exercise such as walking or easy indoor cycling are good, as both of these will allow you to hydrate yourself. Also you should wear warm clothing.

Hold each stretch for a minimum of 20-30 seconds.

Eg. Slow jogging around a field followed by a series of stretches.

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  • This is developed in the toddler years and is the basis of many physical activities. The technique used often depends on the distance which is being run and can be analysed through observing movement or the style of which the movement is being carried out.

  • Poor technique can lead to injury. Many people put their bodies under stress by running to catch a bus or running for too long in the morning.

  • Running fast and well, is a skill - not something you were born with. Likewise, it can be taught

Weaknesses include:

  • Over striding

  • Landing on feet too heavily

  • Not using arms

  • Bent upper body.

  • Bouncing up and down too much!

Assessment of running is often through timing. However running can be measured over a wide range of distances for example 100 metres or a marathon of over 26 miles.

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  • Young children start to jump up and down as soon as they are standing this is one of the most basic fundamental motor skill. However this fundamental motor skill is also an athletic event and is not a skill which you are born with it is a learnt ability.

  • Long Jump is assessed by distance. In long jump you have to have a specific technique, you have to have high speed run up, an a accurate take-off. You have to put your arms above your head and pull them in front of you as you land.

  • High jump is assessed by height this can be measured by flopping onto your back or doing scissor kicks over a bar.  

  • Pole vault is also measured by height but instead you have a pole and you must jump higher.
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  • Throwing can be passing a ball to an athlete in netball, basketball etc. However it is also a field event in athletics these events are called hammer, discus, javelin, and shot put.  

  • The correct technique must be used in throwing otherwise there can be damages and injuries.

  • People that throw are at risk of over-usage of muscles in the upper limb joints the best way to avoid this is to limit or restrict the number of throws you make during each exercise.

  • Assessment of throwing is often through measuring the distance of the object thrown.

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  • Kicking is mainly used in football and involves shooting and passing skills. People make common mistakes by using their toe to kick the ball this is painful, and is also inaccurate.

  • Assessment of kicking is through shooting and passing.


  • Hitting can be found in sports like tennis, rounders, cricket. It is usually assessed by how far you hit the ball.


Catching is used in sports such as basketball, netball, rounders, etc. this can be measured by how well you catch the ball. Whether you can catch in with one hand in rounders. Whether you can catch the ball and stump people out etc.

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Skillful movement

How the exam board wants you to define skilled movement:

Skill is the learnt ability to bring about pre-determined goals with maximum certainty, often with minimum outlay of time and or energy.

  • Remember skills are largely learnt but are underpinned by the abilities we are born with.

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Classifying a skillful movement

6 words to describe skillful movement MUST REMEMBERDEFINITIONS

  • Efficient-effortless

  • Pre-determind-knows how it looks and how to use it.

  • Co-ordination- shows good technique.

  • Fluent- Flows

  • Aesthetic- Looks good.

Pleasing- Does it look good to watch

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Advanced vs Beginner

performance is skilled:

Andy Murray is a skilled tennis player this is because he knows when to play shots with accuracy and effort. He is quick at receiving and hitting the ball making it flow and the match is aesthetic because of the pace. The actions are co-ordinated making it effective.

A novice is a beginner - How would you describe a novice’s movements?

A novice will be unsure of the game and rules. If they were playing netball they wouldn’t know what the positions were so they would go into different paces. They’d run around in circles trying to get the ball. Because that's all the know. They would waste their energy and get tired easily.

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Goal setting

Goal setting is the process of setting targets that are achievable to you.

Short term goals are those that you can reach quickly that are steps that are taken on the way to achieving long term goals. Eg, to try an get PBs in 1500m so you can one day reach the world record. In sport goal setting is used to motivate people, and is very useful for designing training programmes. You want to win the Olympic 100m race at the 2012 Olympics in London. This is your long term goal. Here are a series of short term goals that would enable you to teach your term goal Remember goals should be realistic- this one is not

  • Attend every single training sessions possible 
  • Improve sit down start 
  • Improve dip (head over) 
  • Improve muscular strength 
  • Increasing reaction time
  • Improve core fitness 
  • Improve technique 
  • Make gradual improvement to PB’s 
  • Make stride longer 
  • Make sure you get good sleep patterns
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performance and outcome goals

Performance Goal:

A performance goal is a direct link to the performer in their performance or technique in the game. For example a performance goal in netball might be to improve passing techniques. A performance goal in football might be to improve passing and shooting.

Outcome Goal:

An outcome goal is a goal based on the end result of the game. (whether you win or lose) For example an outcome goal in netball might be to win an individual game or tournament. An outcome goal in cross-country is to win the north west london league or an individual cross-country race.

Performance has a longer effect than outcome. It’ll have more of a positive effect.

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assessing cardiovascular fitness

  • The level of endurance fitness is indicated by an individual's VO2 max that is the maximum amount of oxygen an individual can take in and utilise in one minute. This can be predicted by the multistage fitness test, which is known as the bleep test.

  • The test was published by the national coaching foundation (now sports coach UK.) and is on a form of a CD. You run a 20m shuttle ensuring you turn at each end of the shuttle on the bleep. The bleep gets faster and faster. To a point where you cannot run to the shuttle this means that you have run as far as possible and you are out of the test.

  • The level recorded by you from this test is kept and is used as a baseline for future tests and can be compared with other tests.

Safety factors:

  • A person experiencing shortness of breath, chest pains, palpitations or light-headed should stop exercising immediately and be sensitively advised to seek advice from a PE teacher or matron.

  • There is a need for the teacher or coach to exercise continuous observation of participants while the test is taking place, particularly of pupils known to be physically less fit.

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Assessing Flexibility

  • Flexibility can be measured with the sit and reach test, the object of this is to measure the athlete’s lower back and hamstring flexibility. The athlete sits on the floor with legs straight out infront of them, The athlete reaches as far as possible keeping legs flat on the ground. The distance that ends of the fingers are from the feet (pointing upwards). The teachers use a sit and reach box to measure this, because it is a more accurate way.

  • This test can compare with future tests and other tests as well.

  • Their are some disadvantages to this test arms and legs length is the main one.
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Assessing body composition

  • Body composition can be assessed in a number of different ways but skinfold measurement is one this is taken from around the biceps, and triceps, stomach and back. The total measurements are added together and recorded to compare with national results or assess training of weight management.

  • Measurements are usually from 3 to 9 different anatomical sites around the body. The right side is usually the only side measured this allows comparison with other people.

  • The teacher pinches the skin t the appropriate site to raise a double layer skin but does not include the muscle. The reading is taken after two seconds to ensure accurate measure.
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Health and well-being

Satisfaction with aspects of life

Being satisfied with your job and social life.

Frequency of positive and negative feelings

Thinking mainly positive rather than negative about yourself and your life.

Access to green space

Having space around you, so you can enjoy going for walks or to parks to do exercise or have fun and not have a sense of feeling claustrophobic from living in a city or built up areas

Level of participation in a range of activities

Being a member of a gym and enjoying regular exercise classes.

Positive mental health

Being happy, optimistic about the future makes you more likely to have positive mental health. Those who are more relaxed feel interested in other people and deal with problems well are also said to have positive mental health

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Typical Health Screening measurments

  • Body Mass Index BMI

  • Blood Pressure

  • Cholesterol

  • Glucose

  • Resting Heart rate

  • Hydration

  • Flexibility
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Resting Heart Rate

To take your resting heart rate place your index and middle finger together on the opposite wrist, about half an inch inside the joint, in line with the index finger. Feel for a pulse when you find the pulse count the number of beads you feel within one minute. You could estimate the beats by counting 10 seconds and multiplying by 6 or 15 seconds and multiplying by 4.

You should always use fingers to take pulse not thumb particularly when recording someone else’s pulse. As you can sometimes feel your own pulse through your thumb.

Average resting heart rates are 60 to 90 bpm. Average resting heart rate for a man is 70 bpm, and average resting heart rate for  women is 75 bpm.

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Blood Pressure

You measure blood pressure with a sphygmomanometer. It is placed where the person cannot see it the results. Blood is recorded first after the person has rested for 5 minutes. The client sits with the left arm resting with the elbow approximately at the level of the heart.

Blood pressure is recorded in units of millimeters of mercury  (mm Hg). Normal blood pressure for men and women is usually considered to be 120 for systolic and 80 for diastolic pressure.

It is common for blood pressure to increase in stressful conditions. If the person seems really stressed they are allowed to repeat this test when they have relaxed


The body mass index (BMI) is a measure of the body composition. BMI is calculated by taking a person’s weight and dividing it by their height into consideration.

The higher the BMI the more body fat is present. However this is only one indication and other issues such as body type should be taken into consideration.

The BMI does not apply to elderly people, pregnant women or highly trained athletes.

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Health and fitness is affected by smoking this is why we see not very many people who are serious about an active healthy lifestyle smoking. Normally haemoglobin in the blood carries oxygen. However when Carbon monoxide is produced by smoking haemoglobin kind prefers to take in carbon monoxide this means that it will not take in oxygen again, and less oxygen circulates in the bloodstream. Up to 10 % of oxygen carrying can be lost in this way. This can make it harder for people doing physical activity this is because they cannot take in much oxygen and may find it much harder to breathe.

Performance enhancing drugs 

Most sporting federations have anti-doping regulations to ensure all athletes are drug-free. Athletes who are caught with drugs can get a ban for cheating this gives them a bad reputation, they may feel a sense of guilt and embarrassment and may never want to participate again. Also it isn’t very inspiring for people who consider these athletes as role models. If they saw their role model cheat they may think cheating is okay.

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  • Alcohol is a legal drug it can make you unconscious and do things without realizing and sometimes you do not remember what you have done. Alcohol can make you gain a lot of weight, feel dehydrated and gives you a lack of energy, it can make you feel more tired. This can make you unfit for sport because you feel very lethargic as you have gained so much weight and you feel very dehydrated from the lack of energy.

  • It also interferes with muscles and slows down muscle recovery, so when you want to do physical activity it may take you awhile for your muscles to feel pain free again.
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Over and Under Weight

  • People who are over and under-weight are considered unhealthy.

  • The problem with over-eating and not doing any exercise is that you are going to gain weight. This is because when you store fat it stores up in your body the more fat you eat the more layers of fat build-up in your body. This causes people to gain health problems and become unfit, due to over-eating and lack of exercise. People who are over-weight tend to have a lot of confidence issues and a lower self-esteem this is because they could be embarrassed, or worried that other people will judge them. They may not participate in sport because they believe they are not good enough or are just not physically fit enough to compete.

  • On the other hand if you are under-weight you do not eat, the minute you do exercise you feel lethargic this is because food gives you energy and without energy you would not be able to keep going.  

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Balanced Healthy Diet

Consequences if not taken:

Fat- Your body cannot digest nutrients it needs to function properly

Carbohydrates- Your wouldn’t have any energy to do anything

Protein- Your muscles can’t grow or repair.

Fruit and Vegetables-Fruit and vegetables give you your five a day to help you keep healthy.

Fibre-If you don’t have enough fibre you won't be able to digest well.

Minerals-Your bones will be weaker than other people's, and your body will not function properly.  

Vitamins- If you do not have any vitamins such as vitamin D your bones won’t be as strong.

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Balanced Healthy Diet

BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate) - It is your daying energy component.

Energy measured in kilocalories or kilojoules.


  • Energy intake = energy expenditure - weight stays the same.

  • Energy intake > Energy Expenditure - weight gains

  • Energy Intake < Energy Expenditure weight Loss.

As you get older your metabolism slows.

  • Men can consume about 2800 kcal day

  • Women can consume about 2000 kcal a day

  • Older people will have a lower kcal intake a day

  • Younger people will have a higher kcal intake a day
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Balanced Healthy Diet

Characteristics of a balanced healthy diet

Describe someone with a balanced healthy lifestyle:

  • Non-smoking

  • Alcohol free

  • Active (5 hours a week of exercise of children 2 hours a week for adults)

  • Healthy diet

  • Water intake

  • Maintain a healthy bodyweight

  • Minimal stress

  • 8 hours of sleep per night

  • Not living a sedentary lifestyle
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Balanced Healthy Diet

What are the characteristics of a balanced lifestyle in the UK.

  • Stay hydrated

  • Regular exercise children 5 hours adults 2 hours per week

  • No smoking

  • Sensible alcohol consumptions

  • Minimising stress

  • Lifestyle affecting factors
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Different methods of Training

Circuit Training:


  • A series of stations that you're at for a period of time. You rotate around to different exercises. It is focused on a range is of all the different areas of the body. Lower, upper, core and total body.


  • Works different parts of the body.

  • Can be adapted to suit individual sport.


  • Can require a lot of space to run a good circuit. 
  • Needs a lot of equipment.

  • Health and safety.
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Different methods of Training



  • In order to do aerobics you need a lot of Cardiovascular endurance

  • While doing aerobics you listen to music and an instructor lead.

  • Uses a variety of moves, ham-strings, curls, heel digs, kicks, and knee flicks.


  • Increase energy levels heart and lung efficiency.

  • Instructor motivates you.


  • Requires co-ordination / Needs to be kept in time. / Feels demotivating
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Different methods of Training



  • Led by instructor on bike at gym listen to music cardiovascular endurance.

  • You adjust the speed of pedaling resistance go.


  • Exercising with other. Massive changes in speed.

  • Not affected by the weather.


  • Pre-book to join session. 
  • Costs money.

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Different methods of Training

Body Pump


  • Improves strength / Toning and conditioning class using weights / Low Weights

  • Led by instructor with music


  • Burns a high number of calories per class

  • Improves muscles shape and tone

  • Help dynamic strength


  • Take a few classes to find what weight you lift / Takes time to get the appropriate techniques
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Different methods of Training



  • Improves posture

  • Improves circulation

  • Improves flexibility


  • Anyone can participate, cheap relaxing.


  • Heart rate remains low 
  • Some actions too difficult

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Different methods of Training



  • Designed to elongate and strengthen body. Action to include core muscles and toning.


  • Improves posture spinal flexibility, muscle tone.


  • Specialist equipment 
  • High degree of understanding

  • No cardiovascular endurance is used in this exercise.
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Different methods of Training

Dance Exercise


  • Whole body actions in time for music


  • Work on flexibility

  • Intense dancing

  • Work on cardiovascular endurance


  • Timing embarrassment factors

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