where chemical reactions take place.
Controls the cell's activities.
Controls the movements of materials in and out of the cell.
Where energy is released during aerobic respiration.
Where protein synthesis takes place.
The cell of an algae, single-celled or simple multicellular organisms which can photosynthesise, but is not a plant.
Rigid structure which supports the cell. It is made of cellulose.
A big carbohydrate molecule which makes up plant and algal cell walls.
The organelles in which photosynthesis takes place. They contain Chlorophyll which is the green pigment in chloroplasts.
A space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap which is always there.
Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Cell Membrane, Mitochondria, Ribosomes.
Plant and Algal Cells
Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Cell Wall, Cell Membrane, Chloroplasts, Ribosomes, Mitochondria, Permanent Vacuole filled with sap.
Are smaller than plant and animal cells and grow in colonies.
Made up of:
Genetic Material (no Nucleus), Cytoplasm, Cell Wall, Cell Membrane, Slime Capsule, Plasmids and Flagella.
Is a single-celled organism which is different to other cells.
Made up of:
Cell Membrane, Cell Wall, Cytoplasm and Nucleus.
There are many different types of cell and their structures are linked to their function.
Muscle cells and Sperm cells contain lots of Mitochondria,
Gland Cells contain lots of ribosomes tomake lots of proteins to produce enzymes,
Sperm cells have tails allowing them to move,
Cone cells in the eye have special structures to enable them to detect light (Receptor cells),
Mesophyll cells in the leaves contain many chloroplasts for photosynthesising,
Root hair cells have a large surface area to increase water and mineral ion absorbtion.
Is the spreading out of particles of any substance in solution.
Dissolved substances move in and out of cells through diffusion.
the diffusion of oxygen into the cells of the body from the bloodstream when we respire.
The diffusion of carbon dioxide into actively photosynthesising plant cells.
The diffusion of simple sugars and amino acids from the gut through cell membranes.
The overall movement of particles from an area of high concentration to lower concentration. The net movement in or out of a cell depends on the concentration of the particles on either side of the cell mmbrane.
The difference in concentration between two areas.
The larger the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion and the higher the net movement.
You can have a shallow concentration gradient or a steep concentration gradient.
A tissue is a group of cells with similar structures and functions.
Muscle tissues- contract to bring about movement
Glandular tissue - produces substances such as enzymes and hormones
Epithelial tissue - covers parts of the body
Epidermal tissue - covers parts of the plant
Mesophyll tissue - can photosynthesise
Xylem and Phloem tissue - transport substances around the plant
Organs are made of tissues.
Stomach organ made of:
Muscle tissue - churns stomach contents
Glandular tissues - produce digestive juices
Epithelial tissue - covers inside and outside of stomach
Groups of organs form organ systems to perform a particular function.
Levels of complexity in multicellular organisms
Cell > Tissue > Organ > Organ System > Whole body
Organ Systems - the digestive system
The digestive system id a muscular tube which includes:
Glands - e.g. panncreas and salivary glansds - produce the digestive juices,
Small intestine - where digestion occurs,
Liver - produces bile
Small intestine - where absorption of soluble food occurs
Large intestine - where water is absorbed from undgested food producing faeces