B2 chapter 1 revision cards

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  • Created by: Jade S.
  • Created on: 04-12-12 17:42


where chemical reactions take place.

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Controls the cell's activities.

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Cell Membrane

Controls the movements of materials in and out of the cell.

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Where energy is released during aerobic respiration.

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Where protein synthesis takes place.

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Algal Cell

The cell of an algae, single-celled or simple multicellular organisms which can photosynthesise, but is not a plant.

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Cell Wall

Rigid structure which supports the cell. It is made of cellulose.

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A big carbohydrate molecule which makes up plant and algal cell walls.

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The organelles in which photosynthesis takes place. They contain Chlorophyll which is the green pigment in chloroplasts.

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Permanent Vacuole

A space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap which is always there.

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Animal Cell


Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Cell Membrane, Mitochondria, Ribosomes.

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Plant and Algal Cells


Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Cell Wall, Cell Membrane, Chloroplasts, Ribosomes, Mitochondria, Permanent Vacuole filled with sap.

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Bacterial Cells

Are smaller than plant and animal cells and grow in colonies.

Made up of:

Genetic Material (no Nucleus), Cytoplasm, Cell Wall, Cell Membrane, Slime Capsule, Plasmids and Flagella.

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Yeast Cells

Is a single-celled organism which is different to other cells.

Made up of:

Cell Membrane, Cell Wall, Cytoplasm and Nucleus.

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Specialised cells

There are many different types of cell and their structures are linked to their function.

For Example:

Muscle cells and Sperm cells contain lots of Mitochondria,

Gland Cells contain lots of ribosomes tomake lots of proteins to produce enzymes,

Sperm cells have tails allowing them to move,

Cone cells in the eye have special structures to enable them to detect light (Receptor cells),

Mesophyll cells in the leaves contain many chloroplasts for photosynthesising,

Root hair cells have a large surface area to increase water and mineral ion absorbtion.

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Is the spreading out of particles of any substance in solution.

Dissolved substances move in and out of cells through diffusion.

Examples include:

the diffusion of oxygen into the cells of the body from the bloodstream when we respire.

The diffusion of carbon dioxide into actively photosynthesising plant cells.

The diffusion of simple sugars and amino acids from the gut through cell membranes.

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Net Movement

The overall movement of particles from an area of high concentration to lower concentration. The net movement in or out of a cell depends on the concentration of the particles on either side of the cell mmbrane.

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Concentration Gradient

The difference in concentration between two areas.

The larger the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion and the higher the net movement.

You can have a shallow concentration gradient or a steep concentration gradient.

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A tissue is a group of cells with similar structures and functions.


Animal tissues:

Muscle tissues- contract to bring about movement

Glandular tissue - produces substances such as enzymes and hormones

Epithelial tissue - covers parts of the body

Plant Tissues:

Epidermal tissue - covers parts of the plant

Mesophyll tissue - can photosynthesise

Xylem and Phloem tissue - transport substances around the plant

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Organs are made of tissues.


Stomach organ made of:

Muscle tissue - churns stomach contents

Glandular tissues - produce digestive juices

Epithelial tissue - covers inside and outside of stomach

Groups of organs form organ systems to perform a particular function.

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Levels of complexity in multicellular organisms

Cell > Tissue > Organ > Organ System > Whole body

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Organ Systems - the digestive system

The digestive system id a muscular tube which includes:

Glands - e.g. panncreas and salivary glansds - produce the digestive juices,

Small intestine - where digestion occurs,

Liver - produces bile

Small intestine - where absorption of soluble food occurs

Large intestine - where water is absorbed from undgested food producing faeces

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