English lang lit frameworks

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  • Created by: Rhiiii
  • Created on: 23-05-15 18:21
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The phonological framework
Phonology is the sound of language. Look for:
a) Characteristics of speech ­ prosodic features, voiced pauses, fillers
b) Rhetorical, literary or specialist use ­ rhyme, alliteration, onomatopoeia, rhythm,
assonance, sibilance, consonance, harsh/soft sounds
c) Elision
d) Accent, recognisable by deviant spelling
e) Text message phonetics ­ homophones of numbers
Lexical framework
Lexis simply means vocabulary. Look out for:
a) Informal lexis ­ slang, colloquialisms, swearing, clichés, monosyllabic words, dialect
b) Formal lexis ­ elevated, literate, sophisticated, polysyllabic, archaisms, Latinate
c) Figurative lexis ­ metaphor, simile, personification, metonymy, hyperbole, oxymoron
d) Other lexical choices ­ euphemisms, dysphemism, neologisms, collocations
e) Field specific lexis ­ semantic fields, jargon
Semantic framework
Semantics is the meaning of language. Look for:
a) Factual and objective ­ denotative or referential
b) Personal and subjective ­ connotative, emotive or attitudinal
c) Types of meaning ­ positive, negative, specific, vague, literal, figurative
d) Similarities/contrasts in meaning ­ synonym, antonym
e) Changes ­ amelioration, pejoration, generalisation, specialisation, weakening
f) Meanings from lexis feature ­ semantic fields, figurative language
g) Meanings from grammar feature ­ modality from modal auxiliaries
h) Others ­ hyponym, hypernym, meronym, homonym, homophone
Pragmatic framework
Where semantics involves the meaning of language, pragmatics centres on the force of our
language. It is the practical use of language and how meaning is implied.
a) Recognition of allusion ­ cultural allusions
b) Recognition of function ­ use of grammatical declarative to ask a question, use of
interrogative to command
c) Grice's maxims ­ quality, quantity, manner, relevance
d) Specific features of turns in speech ­ utterance length, speech acts, backtracking,
repairing, terms of address, repetition, minimal responses, hedging
Grammatical framework
Grammar is the structure of units of language.
a) Word classes ­ nouns, adjectives, verbs, pronouns, conjunctions, prepositions
b) Sentence function ­ declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamative
c) Sentence type ­ minor, simple, compound, complex
d) Syntax
e) Other ­ ellipsis, active/passive voice, pronoun use, agreement, deixis


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