Rivers, population, coast and health case studies



Global distribution:

·         Sub – Saharan Africa has 10% of world population but 70% of HIV infected population

·         72% of deaths are in SSA

·         Thought to have originated in Sub-Saharan Africa

·         Spread easily by droplet infection

·         Became a pandemic due to international travel, blood transfusions & intravenous drug use

Impact on health:

·         Invades white blood cells in body – targeting the immune system

·         Body becomes target to everyday opportunistic infections

·         HIV becomes AIDS

·         Often, sufferers in SSA die of tuberculosis or cholera

·         In South Africa, life expectancy has dropped from 63 in 1998 to around 45 now

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Impact on economic development:

·         It strikes mature adults when they’re most productive, so contribution to economy is lost

· Strikes all people irrespective of health & education, so lots of investments in education & training can be lost

·         Many children left orphaned, discontinuing their education & reducing value

·         Cost of treatment is huge

·         AIDS increases debt burdens, lowers productivity and weakens infrastructure

Impact on lifestyle:

· In SSA: death of a male reduces the production of ‘cash crops’ (such as coffee, tea and sugar)

· Death of a female reduced the production of grain and other crops necessary for household survival

· In SA only 1/3 of sufferers received a positive response when telling others of being HIV positive – discrimination against sufferers and stigma


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Cancer in UK

Global distribution:

·         Disease of affluence – increases as poverty declines

·         More prevalent in MEDCs

·         Often in tropical or warm temperate climates

·         The USA have a 1/3 above the global average of cases of cancer

·         The UK is has the 9th highest number of cases of cancer

Impact on health:

·         Uncontrollable multiplication of abnormal cells inhibits normal bodily functions

·         Take oxygen & nutrients away from normal body cells

·         Non-communicable so doesn’t spread through infection

·         Causes fatigue and sickness (especially during chemotherapy)

·         UK: 20% of cases find difficulty in getting out of  a chair



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Impact on economic development:

·         Cancer treatment is expensive

·         Mostly strikes 40+ years, but also some ‘at risk’ groups

·         Health services have to balance cost, puts more strain on systems

·         High costs involved in research of the disease – no definitive cure

·         Drugs can cost between £9000 - £45000 a year in the UK

Impact on lifestyle:

·         Chemotherapy courses leave people feeling weak, unable to work

·         Some people choose to ‘go private’ for treatment – very costly

·         Some cancers e.g. lung, that are linked to risk factors i.e. smoking, cause people to quit or create healthier lifestyles

·         UK: 40% of sufferers find difficulty walking; limiting their accessibility

·         UK: GPs hand out stop smoking advice for lung cancer sufferers


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  • Government guidelines e.g. 5 a day, RDAs
  • Food labelling to raise awareness
  • Screening (breast & cervical cancer smears)
  • Government adverts
  • Vaccinations for prevention- HPV
  • Exercise recommendations (30 mins/day)
  • Alcohol intake advice
  • Slimming clubs
  • Nicotine patches


  • Quick responses. Aim for 8 minute wait after calling an ambulance.
  • Maximum waiting list times on the NHS
  • Investments in health centres, hospitals & specialist units
  • UK: 610 patients per doctor
  • UK: spends £1400 per person per year
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Key Facts:

  • Very young population. 45% under 14 years old.
  • Birth rate: 41/1000
  • Death rate: 21/1000
  • Infant mortality rate: 101/1000 (VERY HIGH)
  • 15-10% suffer from HIV/AIDS
  • Life expectancy: 38
  • 60% live in rural areas – hard to reach
  • Zambia: 14000 people per doctor

Approach to AIDS

  • Anti AIDS club established in 1991
  • Based on primary schools network – targeting young
  • Supported by NGO Family Health Trust
  • Aim to limit new infections
  • Offer support and care to sufferers
  • Give peer education
  • Water Aid provide ¼ of the country with sanitary conditions
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A world leading pharmaceutical company

Research and production

GSK produces almost four billion packets of medicines and health care products each year, including one quarter of the world’s vaccines.

It produces drugs for wealthy countries (drugs for CHD) and poorer countries (polio vaccines)

Distribution and sales

GSK makes a large profit from drug sales but also donates some drugs to poorer countries for free, such as 750 million albendazole tablets for 130 million people with elephantiasis.

GSK invests just under 4% of its pre-tax profits in community programmes to help people in need.

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The world’s largest tobacco company

Research and production

Sells over 800 billion cigarettes worldwide per year.

Does research and develop some less harmful products, such as cigarettes that are less toxic. These could help to reduce the numbers of tobacco related illnesses.

Distribution and sales

PMI does stick to the treaty in the countries that have signed up to it but advertises differently in countries that haven’t- like giving away free samples.

PMI has agreed to not market products to children and has put health warnings on all marketing materials and packaging.


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