What it is actually made of.
E.g. A cup of coffee;
This is the means by which it is made of.
-Putting beans in to a grinder for coffee
-Heating up water with Tea Kettle
-Pouring hot water onto the coffee beans
What it is like.
-The idea of what the cup of coffee is in essence
The purpose of the thing.
- The purpose of the cup of coffee would be to help you to wake up.
Aristotle's Four Causes
Aristotle Held that everything has four causes