- S= hierarchial
- nobs not manual labour
- weak feudal ties nobs and king
- power fams- .e.g Mendoza (related F, large land N C, support IS crown 1474, power wealth sheep farm, BUT exlcuded any position in gov, benefit 1505 entail pass estate s1 heir)
- lesser nobs make figure 60+ power fams
- Salamanca- 63% land & 60% pop nobs control
- A relations king & nobs= less stable C, but fewer- less 20
- nobs= wealth, land, influence= threat king
- tax exemptions, right control sheep walks used Mesta, tolls go to nobs not king
- vassals- work on land, draft into armies
- Valesco fam- Constable of C, control 250+ towns/ vills
- masterships of Military Orders gain power, but by 1501 held by F
- dominant in Cortes, high profile town councils
- firm grip countryside- high rents + feudal services
- central gov= limited success, grant entails 1505 prevent conflict and disputes
- nobs= only area gov sympathy lower classes
KAMEN= nobs serious threat king, only saved by rivarly between themselves
MCCLIVE: nobs 'power grown strongly during the 14th century'
MCCLIVE= 'F never succeeded on supressing the nobs, nor did he recieve any significant cooperation'
Union of Crowns C&A
- Oct 1469- F&I secret marriage
- I= 'plain face' 'nose was... irregular'
- concessions- F 'reside and be in them (C) with Her Highness... I will not leave them without her will and counsel, & I will not remove her from them w/o her consent & will'
- I= want C international well
- F want A protect French
- F= 24 concessions not steal throne I
- I not tell bro HIV, or RC
- Spain not united- Gran & Port outside control
- F&I= cousins, blessing Pope 1474
- I crowned death HIV 1474- quick, avoid challenges e.g Jo Mad
Union of Crowns- IS Queen
- I support= lim, no high-ranking people coronation (Sergovia)
- Assembly (parlia) of C accept I queen
- 5 yr struggle acceptance, ended Battle of Toro 1476- allow I summon Cortes defined ruling as monarch
- AB Toledo= main opponent, large # troops, castles & support. Surrender 1478
- towns N & S C resist
MCCLIVE= Is= 'determined and resourceful'
- son born 1478- dynasty, heir throne
- King Alfonso support Jo Mad- failed
- support F
- 1479 I= secure throne- Jo= nun
- 1479 F= King A = united Spain
- F inherit G, Valencia, Catalonia
- Cat= unsuccesful attempts be independent
- Port- still sep til 1580
- C&A= large nob threat, large land, wealth, peasants controlled
- C= bigger, pop & geog
- 5 mill people in C, 1 mill A
- C seve cities 50,000 A fewer cities 20,000
- C= more unified, gov acknowledged throughout 1 repr body Cortes
- A= 3 Cortes- Catalonia, Valencia & Granada (less power king)
- C cortes 3 houses, A= 4. Each state A committee act when Cortes not in session
- justicia challenge privilidges (fueros)
- C= 1 lang & coin
- C develop commerce, wool trade, Burgos= trade city
- A towns compete against not work together
- A= farm & trade, C= wool/sheep
- C more autho, need Cortes validate decisions, A= not new laws w/o Cortes consent
- A rarely saw king/ queen, C= more peripatetic
Personal Authority- Historians
ELLIOT- C= 'transformed and invigorated' by wool trade, monarchs 'established strong personal rule'
HUNT- A 'aim was to restore royal authority' F main target= nobs but 'anxious bring under control'
KAMEN= 'far reaching changes.... political economic and social life'
PRESCOTT, 1837- 'most glorious epoch in the annals of Spain'
- F&I unite C&A
- new possibs- remove Turk threat, rid Moors
- most hists= F&I left S stronger 'absolute' rulers
- no restraints autho, dismiss councillors and ministers, parlia never summoned, all aspects ofd gov monarchs commands
KAMEN: doubts, F&I supporters strong auth but not able exercise it- CERTINALY NO THEORY OF ABSOLUTISM
- I use 'absolutely power'
- use decrees, not statute law in C
- after 1480