Aqa Textiles

Everything that is important from the standardized text book




Disassembly- how the product was made

Finding out how other products were put together will help you choose  the best methods for making your product.

find out-how parts  of the product were put together,order of parts, how decoration was added

Disassembling a product  involves-    examining each section close  -  taking the product a part to see how it was put together

Find out- fit for purose ,improvements, disassembly is expensive but is effective

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Trend forecast

Trend forecasts

·         a trend forecast is when a fashion follows a particular direction

·         trend forecasts can be  made far in advance e.g. 18 months before

·         Designers follow trend forecasts to keep up to date on what other designers are making and it will sell better if it is on trend

·         Designers can keep up to date by looking at fashion forecast websites  , attending fashion shows and trade shows

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Yarns,synthetic fibres and regenerated fibres

 Yarns made from filaments are smooth and long-Yarns made from staple lengths are hairier and shorter in length

Fibres can be natural - natural fibres come from natural sources e.g. plants and animalsnatural fibres usually come in staple lengths  apart from silk which comes from filamentsThey are biodegradable  ad often recyclable , so fibres are fairly sustainable. In general natural fibres are absorbent and strong when dry  but they have poor resistance to mould and moths.

Regenerated fibres - natural materials(cellulose or wood pulp)  that is chemically treated . Regenerated fibres tend to have similar properties to natural fibres  however they can be given different properties using different chemicals.Synthetic fibres- man - made - from polymers  and these polymers mainly come from coal or oil. They are less sustainable  and can have different properties-can changed by heating ,resistant to biological damage, are not absorbent

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Plain weave

·         hard wearing , cheap- cotton based , smooth finish 

Twill weave

·         Stronger than plain weave  and drapes better  e.g  denim

Satin weave

·         makes shiny fabrics , can snag and is quite delicate


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weft and warp

Knitted fabrics

weft knitted fabrics - stretch and loose their shape easily, can be produced by machines or by hand - used to make jumpers, socks and T-shirts

Warp knitted fabrics- stretch but still keep shape, hard to unravel, made  by machines (expensive)-  used to make tights, swimwear, fleeces and bed sheets.

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Fibres and Fabrics


Cotton- from cotton plant - strong, hard wearing, absorbent, comfortable , cool in hot weather , easy to wash , cheap . However it creases badly, high flammability, can shrink, poor elasticity . Used to make T-shirts, soft things.

Wool- from sheep - warm, absorbent, low flammability, crease resistant. But it can shrink ,dries slowly, feels itchy and is expensive. Makes jumpers ,coats, carpets.

Linen- flax plant - strong ,hard wearing , absorbent, comfortable  to wear, very cool in hit weather .However it creases badly, is highly flammable, has poor elasticity, doesn't hand nicely, expensive.  Makes summer suits, dresses.

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Fibres and Fabric spart 2

Silk-silkworm- Is smooth , absorbent , good drape, has low flammability  and is comfortable. However it creases easily, might not wash well, weak when wet and is expensive. Makes underwear ,dresses ,ties.

Viscose - from wood pulp- It is absorbent, soft, comfortable, easily washable , good drape , fairly cheap. However  it has high flammability, hard wearing and has poor elasticity . Makes  under ware, dresses and lining .

Polyester-  from oil- It is strong, hard wearing  , has low flammability , cheap, good elasticity , dries quickly , resists' creasing and biological damage. But it is not absorbent, not biodegradable , damaged by strong acids  and melts as it burns . Makes sportswear, bed sheets, curtains , table cloths

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Fibres and Fabrics part 3

Elastane- from oil- extremely elastic ,light weight, strong , had wearing resists sun damage. However  not absorbent , highly flammable, not biodegradable. Makes sports/swim wear, underwear.

Polyamide - from coal- strong, warm , elastic, crease resistant, cheap. But it isn't absorbent, damaged by sun and melts as it burns . Makes furnishings , carpets , sports wear, tights.

Acrylic - from oil- similar to wool and is strong - except when wet, soft , insulating , elastic, lightweight , cheap. But it isn't very absorbent, highly flammable  and is affected by static piling. Makes fake fur ,knitted clothes and furnishings.

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Combining Fibres- Blending

Combining Fabrics

Blending-      A blend is when two or more different fibres are combined to produce yarn- the mixed yarn is then woven or knitted to make a fabric

Example of blended fibres

Cotton is heard wearing , absorbent  , soft , dries slowly and creases easily, it shrinks and is highly flammable .

Polyester is hard wearing, not absorbent , not soft, dries quickly, doesn't crease or shrink and is not very flammable .

When polyester ad cotton are blended  they are even stronger , less absorbent , soft, comfortable and highly flammable.

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Combining fibres - mixing


·         A mix  is when fabric is made of  two or more different types of yarn

·          One type of yarn for warp and one for weft.

Example of mixing

Cotton is absorbent and soft , not stretchy or strong  Elastane "lycra" is not absorbent , stretchy and crease resistant.

By mixing them  you get a fabric that is string , stretchy, comfortable , resists creasing and can dye easily.

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New fabrics


Kevlar-  really strong  ,resistance to abrasions-  bullet proof vests and motorcyclists

Nomex-fire resistant- race care drivers and fire fighters

Tenecel- is a modern regenerated fibre - ideal for a variety of textiles e.g. luxurious bed sheets to woven wipes.

Fatskin- swimsuit- mimics are sharks skin, rough surfaces reduces drag.

Micro encapsulation - allows chemicals to be embedded in clothes e.g. insect repellent ,perfumes. Makes antibacterial socks or scented underwear.

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Smart Fabrics

Conductive fabrics- sensors in clothes to monitor heart rate, washable electronic switches for mp3s or an electrical heater

Smart fabrics - thermo chromic fabric- micro encapsulated dye changes colour at different temps - colour lost after 5-10 washes .

 Photo chromic fabric - changes from one colour to another in different light conditions .

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Choosing Fabrics

Choosing Fabrics - look at

·         warmth - use fibres which are insulated wool or acrylic- knitted fabrics keep air trapped

·         after care - use machine washable fibres  e.g. cotton and  a plain woven fabric is strong and unlikely to shrink or crease

·         Durability- strong hard wearing fibres  like cotton, polyester and nylon- use plain or twill weave for strength

·         Appearance- use a fabric that drapes well e.g. viscose or silk

·         Safety -  Nomex - fire-fighters  or garments with low flammability e.g. 100% polyester night clothes - flammable product can have flame retardant finishes.

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Care lables

Care labels may show - fibre content, care symbols, extra care instruction, CE mark , lion mark and size


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Natural fibres like cotton, wool and silk are best for dyeing because they are very absorbent.

Batch dying -  Batch dyeing is useful because as fashionable colours change quickly , textile manufacturers can respond quickly and produce large batches of fabrics in different colours.

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Methods -How to Do


Tie dyeing - fabric is tied with a string or rubber bands to create a resist. The fabric is then immersed in die . The dye doesn't get to the tied areas. Once the dye has dried  and the fabric is untied , the pattern is revealed.

Block printing- Make a printing block with a raised surface. Printing ink is applied to the raise surface of the printing block. The block is pressed down onto the fabric  and it leaves a reversed image on the fabric. Engraved rollers are used in industry instead of blocks  and the rolls are inked continuously . They are expensive and only cost effective with large amounts of fabric.

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Methods how to do part 2

Appliqué- Position the cut shape onto the fabric and keep in place using pins. Use bond web to  stop the fabric from stretching when sewn. Prevent fraying by folding the edges of the shape under before sewing. Machine stitch the design. A close zig zag stitch  is usually used. The appliqué can be padded  by placing wadding and stuffing between the pieces.

Quilting- use wadding between two layers of fabric which are then stitched together  in straight lined or in a pattern . Quilting adds a 3-D effect and warmth.


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Fabric finsihes


·         flame retardant finish - cheaper than Nomex

·         Water resistance- can be washed and dry cleaned e.g nylon is often given a water resistant finish

·          Stain resistance-  stop dirt from penetrating the fabric- carpets

·         Shrink resistance

·         crease resistance- make fabrics stiffer  and are durable

·          Fabric brushing - applied mechanically- gives soft raised surface e.g toys

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Environmental,ethical,moral issues

Environmental issues - co2 burning fossil fuels, pesticides polluting  rivers, transport pollution,  landfill pollution, toxic chemicals SOLUTION- recycle, reuse, renewable energy, materials from England (less transport), remove chemicals, use non-toxic dyes, organic cotton.

ethical and moral issues- child labour, sweat shops, toxic chemicals effect employees, animal products, unfair wages SOLUTION- fair trade , artificial fur (faux fur)

Words to use in the exam- reused,recycled,E.U approved,fair trade,organic cotton,non-toic dyes

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Consumer Rights

Consumer rights-

Trade description act- this states that any claim a manufacturer makes about their product must be true e.g. can't give false information

Sale and supply of goods Act 1979-this protects consumers when they buy goods the goods must fit the description, be of satisfactory quality and fit for purpose.

Lion Mark- British toy and hobby Association-stick to safety, marketing and ethical guidelines.

CE mark-This is a manufacturers claim that  the product meets  the essential safety standards allowing it to be  sold all over Europe.

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Health and safety

Health and safety-

The health and safety at work Act means that employers are legally responsible for the health and safety of the employees. Risk assessments can be used to minimise risk.

Safety- Dust extractors, guards, emergency stop buttons, protective clothing, keep away flammable chemicals (COSHH), rubber gloves, hair net, ear protection, layout of the room e.g walkways, natural light, employee breaks , safety checks.

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Tool and Equipment

·         Measuring tapes- accurately follow curved surfaces

·         tailors chalk- transfers markings onto fabric and can be rubbed out

·         Pattern  master-to  help draw paper patterns

·         Paper scissors-cut out patterns

·         Dress making scissors-cut through fabric easily and neatly- very long

·         Embroidery scissors- for more delicate jobs e.g snipping - very tiny

·         Pinking shears-helps prevent fabric from fraying- zig zag

·         Craft knives- to cut out templates neatly and efficiently

·         Seam Rippers to unpick seams

·            Steam irons-use water and steam  to flatten seams

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Advantages of CAM and  CAD-designed quickly and cheaply modelled, changes can be made quick and easy,designs can be sent all over the world via email,  computer can work out best  pattern  arrangement,CAM-speed up production process,machines controlled by computer are more accurate, consistent, higher quality,cut labour costs and computers can control stock levels


·         Initial cost of software is high

·         workers have to train to use CAM/CAD  and this is expensive

·         Danger of viruses, corrupt files and power  cuts.

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Production Processes

Production  Processes-

·         One off productions- or "job production"- custom made, high quality and expensive

·         Batch production- specific number of identical products- production costs are  less

·         Mass production- large quantities of products are made on a production line- where a worker does a specific job e.g sew a button and then it is given to the next station - sub assemblies are also used to make individual bits e.g bag handles- Effective but costly initially

·         Just In Time - a manufacturer gets the materials  and components delivered regularly in small amounts when they are needed, and uses them as soon as they are delivered.- saves cost of storing and voids money being wasted.

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Quality assurance and control

Quality assurance - is a system that is set up to make sure a product meets all the criteria  on the design and product specification- basically setting standards

quality control- is the process of checking and inspecting products and materials to make sure they meet all the standards set by specifications

·         check raw materials- good condition

·         prototype-check that the manufacturer specification is exactly right

·         Production sample- quality checked with samples

·         Tolerance

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I hope you all do well Inshaallah (ameen)

Rabi zidni ilma - Oh lord please increase me in knowledge


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