GCSE AQA textiles revision notes

These are my revision notes made from the specification, a revision guide and various websites. I hope it helps x

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  • Created on: 08-06-12 19:19
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TEXTILES REVISION
Fabric construction:
Weaving/
Knitting
Fibre Yarn Fabric
Spinning
NATURAL FIBRES: Animal: wool, silk, alpaca, angora, cashmere etc.
Plant: cotton, linen, jute, hemp
SYNTHETIC FIBRES: elastomeric, acrylic, PVC, polyester, nylon, Tactel
REGENERATED FIBRES: viscose, lyocell, acetate, cupro, modal, tencel
Spinning:
Worsted ­ smooth
Woollen ­ hairy
WOVEN FABRICS: interlocking threads or yarns
WEFT: run horizontally
WARP: run vertically
They...
fray easily when cut
strongest along the grain
lack elasticity
stronger and firmer the closer the weave is
KNITTED FABRICS:
Made from YARN in a series of INTERLOCKING LOOPS
They are ELASTIC, WARM (trap air) and can be NAPPED or BRUSHED, making
them FLUFFY

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WEAVING
PLAIN WEAVE: TWILL WEAVE:
Construction - Over
Construction ­ over
one, under one
2, under 2 (weft
Selvedge ­ doesn't
moves over 1 warp
fray
thread each time)
Bias ­ diagonally
Pattern ­ forms a
across the weave so
diagonal pattern
that fabric stretches
Lots of variations possible Strong
Strong Drapes well
Hard wearing Used on jeans, uniforms and jackets
Used for fashion and furnishing
fabrics
SATIN WEAVE: BASKET WEAVE:
Construction ­ warp:
over 1, under 3.…read more

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NON-WOVEN FABRICS
WOOL FELTS NEEDLE FELTS
Construction ­ Construction ­
Fibres are matted Fibres are tangled
together and interlocked
Made from animal
hair or wool
Fibres are passed through lots of
barbed needles, dragging the fibres up
Fibre web is squashed together with
and down, forwards and backwards,
moisture, a machine and heat
tangling the fibres
The fibres become tangled
Used for hats, jackets, slippers
BONDED FABRICS LAMINATED FABRICS
Construction ­
Fibres are bonded Construction ­
together using fabrics are bonded
adhesive, solvent of together…read more

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S
SMMA
ARRT
TTTE
EXXT
TIIL
LEES
S
Materials that can RESPOND TO EXTERNAL STIMULI or ACTYIVATED BY
INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL POWER SOURCES
GORE-TEX
Laminated membrane
Breathable
Lightweight
Waterproof
Used on jackets and
shoes
ELECTRO TEXTILES:
MEMORY TEXTILES: Textiles can be combined with
electronics to create products
Shape memory polymer
with soft keyboards to provide
Temperature-sensitive foam used to
additional functions
mould to match the body pressuring
Wearable textiles
against it
Soft, washable fabric with
Useful for the elderly and disabled
optical and electrical fibres…read more

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UV-REACTIVE FABRIC
Dyes used respond to light/ sunlight ­ PHOSPHORESCENT
can produce interesting patterns FABRIC
Used for novelty products, to measure
Transform invisible forms of
sun exposure or military clothing which
energy into visible light
adjusts according to the environment
Dyes can be IMPREGNATED
with phosphorescence which
traps and stores energy from a
light source and makes it `glow
in the dark'
Dye can be a surface coating,
printed on as a pattern or woven
or spun
Used for children's novelty
clothing, clubbing wear and…read more

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Combining fabrics and fibres
Interfacing fabric (such as Vilene) ­ can be stitched or laminated to
other fabrics. This reinforces, stiffens and gives strength to collars and
cuffs to prevent the fabric from stretching or sagging.
Quilted fabric - two or more layers sewn together to give an attractive
appearance and added warmth.
Gore-Tex ­ can be laminated to another fabric using adhesive or heat.
Gore-Tex is used for all-weather clothing and shoes because it is breathable
and waterproof.…read more

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NATURAL FIBRES
LINEN
A cellulose fibre BUT
Stiffer, stronger and firmer than cotton
COTTON
Made from CELLULOSE
Properties:
Very absorbent ­ suitable for towels
Properties:
Dyes well
Strong when wet
Strong when wet, easier to launder
Centre is hollow, moisture can be absorbed easily
Dries quicker than cotton
­ can hold 65% its own weight without dripping
Smooth fibres=smooth fabric
Dyes easily
Cool to wear
Easy to launder, washed at high temps
Shinier than cotton
Cool to wear ­ fibres are smooth and do not…read more

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SYNTHETIC FIBRES
NYLON
Properties:
POLYESTER
Strong and elastic
Easy to launder Properties:
Dries quickly Resists wrinkling
Keeps its shape Strong and hardwearing
It is resilient Easy to launder
Thermoplastic ­ reshaped (permanent Dries quickly
pleats) Resistant to stretching and shrinking
Smooth fibres ­ shiny fabric Thermoplastic ­ can be reshaped
Disadvantages: Disadvantages:
Collects static electricity Can be damaged by heat
Damaged by high temperatures Feels cold to the touch
Feels cold to touch Does not absorb moisture
Does not absorb body moisture Uses:
Uses: Clothing…read more

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MICROFIBRES
Polyester or nylon microfibres are 60 to 100 times finer than a human hair. They can be blended with
SYNTHETIC or NATURAL fibres and are used for clothing for outdoor pursuits and active
sportswear.
Thermoplastic polyester or nylon microfibres can be heat-treated to give them coils, crimps and loops,
which makes these textured yarns stretchy and warm. They are used for underwear, sportswear,
knitwear and carpets.
SMART MATERIAL
MATERIAL THAT CAN RESPOND TO EITHER EXTERNAL STIMULI OR
ACTIVATED BY INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL POWER SOURCES.…read more

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FIT FOR PURPOSE?
Fibre content: should you use natural or synthetic fibres?
Fabric construction: should you use woven, knitted or non-woven?
Manufacturing processes: should you use dyeing, printing, mechanical
finishing or chemical finishing?
End use of the fabric: what are you making, e.g. jeans, sportswear or a
seatbelt?
Maintenance: what are the aftercare requirements of the product?
The fibre content, fabric construction and finishing processes determine the
fabric's aesthetic, functional and comfort properties.…read more

Comments

maria

wow this revision guide is really good! i read through it, wrote questions and then used it to check my answers :)

neha

well done, this is a great revision guide. I will recommend it to all my friends. 

thank you **

jane frances eleanor mistry

concise and easy to read.

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