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Page 1

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TEXTILES REVISION
Fabric construction:


Weaving/
Knitting

Fibre Yarn Fabric
Spinning


NATURAL FIBRES: Animal: wool, silk, alpaca, angora, cashmere etc.
Plant: cotton, linen, jute, hemp

SYNTHETIC FIBRES: elastomeric, acrylic, PVC, polyester, nylon, Tactel

REGENERATED FIBRES: viscose, lyocell, acetate, cupro, modal, tencel



Spinning:
Worsted ­ smooth
Woollen ­ hairy

WOVEN FABRICS: interlocking…

Page 2

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WEAVING

PLAIN WEAVE: TWILL WEAVE:
Construction - Over
Construction ­ over
one, under one
2, under 2 (weft
Selvedge ­ doesn't
moves over 1 warp
fray
thread each time)
Bias ­ diagonally
Pattern ­ forms a
across the weave so
diagonal pattern
that fabric stretches



Lots of variations possible Strong…

Page 3

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NON-WOVEN FABRICS

WOOL FELTS NEEDLE FELTS


Construction ­ Construction ­
Fibres are matted Fibres are tangled
together and interlocked
Made from animal
hair or wool
Fibres are passed through lots of
barbed needles, dragging the fibres up
Fibre web is squashed together with
and down, forwards and backwards,
moisture, a…

Page 4

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S
SMMA
ARRT
TTTE
EXXT
TIIL
LEES
S
Materials that can RESPOND TO EXTERNAL STIMULI or ACTYIVATED BY
INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL POWER SOURCES




GORE-TEX

Laminated membrane
Breathable
Lightweight
Waterproof
Used on jackets and
shoes

ELECTRO TEXTILES:
MEMORY TEXTILES: Textiles can be combined with
electronics to create products
Shape memory polymer…

Page 5

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UV-REACTIVE FABRIC
Dyes used respond to light/ sunlight ­ PHOSPHORESCENT
can produce interesting patterns FABRIC
Used for novelty products, to measure
Transform invisible forms of
sun exposure or military clothing which
energy into visible light
adjusts according to the environment
Dyes can be IMPREGNATED
with phosphorescence which
traps and stores…

Page 6

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Combining fabrics and fibres

Interfacing fabric (such as Vilene) ­ can be stitched or laminated to
other fabrics. This reinforces, stiffens and gives strength to collars and
cuffs to prevent the fabric from stretching or sagging.

Quilted fabric - two or more layers sewn together to give an attractive
appearance…

Page 7

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NATURAL FIBRES

LINEN
A cellulose fibre BUT
Stiffer, stronger and firmer than cotton
COTTON
Made from CELLULOSE
Properties:
Very absorbent ­ suitable for towels
Properties:
Dyes well
Strong when wet
Strong when wet, easier to launder
Centre is hollow, moisture can be absorbed easily
Dries quicker than cotton
­ can…

Page 8

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SYNTHETIC FIBRES

NYLON
Properties:
POLYESTER
Strong and elastic
Easy to launder Properties:
Dries quickly Resists wrinkling
Keeps its shape Strong and hardwearing
It is resilient Easy to launder
Thermoplastic ­ reshaped (permanent Dries quickly
pleats) Resistant to stretching and shrinking
Smooth fibres ­ shiny fabric Thermoplastic ­ can be reshaped…

Page 9

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MICROFIBRES
Polyester or nylon microfibres are 60 to 100 times finer than a human hair. They can be blended with
SYNTHETIC or NATURAL fibres and are used for clothing for outdoor pursuits and active
sportswear.

Thermoplastic polyester or nylon microfibres can be heat-treated to give them coils, crimps and loops,…

Page 10

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FIT FOR PURPOSE?

Fibre content: should you use natural or synthetic fibres?
Fabric construction: should you use woven, knitted or non-woven?
Manufacturing processes: should you use dyeing, printing, mechanical
finishing or chemical finishing?
End use of the fabric: what are you making, e.g. jeans, sportswear or a
seatbelt?
Maintenance: what…

Comments

maria

wow this revision guide is really good! i read through it, wrote questions and then used it to check my answers :)

neha

well done, this is a great revision guide. I will recommend it to all my friends. 

thank you **

jane frances eleanor mistry

concise and easy to read.

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