Adaptations and Responses to exercise

HideShow resource information

KEY TERMS

RESPONSE- a temporary change that happens quickly

ADAPTATION- a long term change that happens over time

STRUCTURAL- describes the make up or anatomy

FUNCTIONAL- describes the way the body works

EG: in a house, the structural components would be the bricks and walls, whereas the functional would be the plumbling and electricity.

1 of 7

MUSCULAR-SKELETAL SYSTEM

MUSCLES CAN ONLY CONTRACT-THEY WORK IN ANTAGONISTIC PAIRS TO MOVE A LIMB

RESPONSES

  • Increased ligament elasticity
  • Increased body temp- makes synovial fluid less viscous

ADAPTATIONS

  • Increased tendon and ligament strength
  • Muscular hypertrophy
  • Increased cappillarisation to muscles
  • Increased muscle fibre recruitment
  • Improved tolerance to lactic acid
  • Increased bone strength and density- calcium deposits are laid down
  • Encourage hyaline cartilage to thicken- aiding cushioning at joints
  • Increased mitochondria density
2 of 7

MUSCLE FIBRE TYPES

3 TYPES OF MUSCLE FIBRE

TYPE 1

contract slowly, moderately powerful, lots of mitochondria, high myoglobin stores, resistant to fatigue, high aerobic capacity, low anaerobic capacity, low energy stores of ATP and muscle glycogen, works best with O2. USED FOR CONTINUOUS, LOW INTENSITY EXERCISE- marathons

TYPE 11A

contract quicker, quite powerful, fewer mitochondria, moderately resistant to fatigue, high capillary density, relatively high aerobic and anaerobic capacity, higher energy stores. USED FOR LONGER SPRINT ACTIVITIES- 200m swim, 400m sprint

TYPE 11B

contract very quickly, very powerful, the biggest of the 3 fibre types, few mitochondria, easily fatigued, low aerobic capacity but high anaerobic capacity, high energy stores, works best with insufficient O2. USED FOR QUICK MOVEMENTS- shot put, 100m sprint

3 of 7

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

RESPONSES

  • Increased stroke volume- the volume of blood pumped out per beat
  • Increased venous return- the volume of blood returned to the heart per minute
  • Increased HR
  • Increased cardiac output- the volume of blood pumped out per minute
  • Increased blood pressure
  • Vascular shunting occurs

ADAPTATIONS

  • Cardiac hypertrophy
  • Increased thickness of ventricular muscle
  • Increased strength of ventricular contractions
  • Bradycardia- when resting HR is below 60bpm
  • Increased end diastolic volume (volume of blood in ventricle at the end of filling) and increased end systolic volume (volume of blood left in ventricle after contraction)
  • Increased RBC and haemoglobin levels
4 of 7

CIRCULATION SUMMARY

5 of 7

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

RESPONSES

  • Increased ventilation rates
  • Deeper breating
  • Increased rate of gas diffusion

ADAPTATIONS

  • Increased SA of alveoli
  • Strengthened respiratory muscles- diaphragm
  • Small increase in lung volume
  • Increased capillarisation in lungs
6 of 7

RESPIRATION SUMMARY

3 SYSTEMS IN RESPIRATION

1. Glycolysis- ANAEROBIC ONLY

2. Kreb's Cycle- AEROBIC ONLY

3. Electron Transport Chain- AEROBIC ONLY

INHILATION- breathing in- external intercoastal muscles contract, diaphragm contracts and moves down,pressure gradient forms in lungs- air is sucked in

EXHILATION- breathing out- internal intercostal muscles contract, diaphragm relaxes and is pulled up, increased pressure in lungs forces air out

7 of 7

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Physical Education resources:

See all Physical Education resources »See all Exercise physiology resources »