Achievement motivation

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  • Created by: claud
  • Created on: 23-11-14 09:00

Basics

What motivates people?

  • motivation is the desire to fulfil a need
    • gives us the drive to achieve a goal
    • enables concentration on a task or situation

Achievement motivation

  • links personality with competitiveness
  • the extent to which an individual is motivated to achieve success
    • success in sport is measured against competitive goals
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Achievement motivation theorists

Where does competitiveness come from?

Trait theory

  • Murray (1938) suggested it was natural for someone to strive to beat another
  • competitiveness is a trait that is inherited, stable and enduring

Social learning theory

  • Bandura (1968) believed competitiveness was a product of learning
  • behaviour is learnt through observation, imitation and reinforcement

Interactionist theory

  • Atkinson and McClelland (1976) believed competitiveness was a produced by a combination of both theories
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Atkinson and McClelland

A & M believed competitive motivation is a combination of personality and situational factors.

Personality factors:

  • need to achieve NACH
  • need to avoid failure NAF

Situational factors

  • probability of success
  • incentive value of success
    • how good will you feel after doing something?

Personality factors are harder to change than situational factors. In challenging situations everyone has both a need to achieve and a need to avoid failure. Which need is stronger will determine whether a task is accepted or declined.

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Personality types

HIGH NEED TO ACHIEVE / LOW NEED TO AVOID FAILURE

  • adopt approach behaviour
  • accept challenges
  • undertake risks
  • shows persistance with difficult tasks
  • attribute success to internal factors
  • failure seen as a route to success
  • aspire to mastery orientation (expecting to succeed)
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Personality types

LOW NEED TO ACHIEVE / HIGH NEED TO AVOID FAILURE

  • adopt avoidance behaviour
  • reject challenges
  • decline risks
  • give up with difficult tasks
  • attribute success to external factors
  • failure seen as a route to more failure
  • adopt learned helplessness
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Key word definitions

APPROACH BEHAVIOUR

  • behaviour that accepts a challenge

AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOUR

  • behaviour that rejects a challenge

ATTRIBUTION

  • the reasons given for success or failure

MASTERY ORIENTATION

  • this type of person will expect to succeed but will persist when failure is experienced
    • eg. this person shows/demonstrates mastery orientation

LEARNED HELPLESSNESS

  • the belief that failure is inevitable and that they have no control over the factors that cause failure
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Personality components

Type A

  • someone with a high NACH
  • will probably have a low NAF
  • will choose difficult or demanding tasks which are more risky
  • hard route up a rock face

Type B

  • someone with a high NAF
  • will probably have a low NACH
  • will choose tasks which are less risky and more easily achieved
  • easy route up a rock face
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Probability of success / incentive value

  • a situation activates achievement motivation

The situation comprises:

  • the probability of success
  • the incentive value
    • this is the feeling an individual would have if they were to achieve. eg. how satisified they feel.

TASK 1 / DIFFICULT TASK

  • high degree of satisfaction, therefore a high incentive value
  • lower probability of success

TASK 2 / EASY TASK

  • lower degree of satisfaction, therefore a lower incentive value
  • higher probability of success
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50/50 odds

When there is a 50/50 chance of success:

Motivation is triggered for people with high NACH personality traits

  • they display approach behaviour and mastery orientation
  • the incentive will be high when the chance of success is evenly balanced

People with low NACH fear 50/50 situations

  • a 50/50 chance causes maximum uncertainty and stress
  • they will adopt avoidance behaviour and experience learned helplessness
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Drawbacks of achievement motivation

People interpret success in different ways.

Ego goal orientation

  • regard success as beating others and winning
  • judge their success against comparison with others
  • these are called ego or product goals
  • usually non athletes

Task orientation

  • judge success on the basis of personal improvement 
  • judge their success in comparison with their own previous performances
  • these are called performance or process goals
    • these build confidence
  • usually athletes
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