A2 Organic Equations

I've tried to do a card for each major component, and then a card for the extra reactions. It may be a bit confusing but I don't really know what the best layout would be, so I'm trying this way! Some of the reactions might be repeated, but hopefully that'll just help you learn them! I'd appreciate any comments on how to make these better :)

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  • Created by: Alice
  • Created on: 03-01-12 15:47

Halogenoalkanes

Halogenoalkanes --> alkenes
Reagents: KOH, ethanol
Conditions: Heat

Halogenoalkanes --> alcohols
Reagents: KOH (aq)
Conditions: Heat under reflux

Halogenoalkanes --> amines
Reagents: NH3
Conditions: Heat

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Alcohols

Alcohols --> halogenoalkanes
Reagents: PCl5 or NaBr, H2SO4
Conditions: R.T. or heat

Alcohols --> esters
Reagents: Conc. H2SO4, carboxylic acid
Conditions: Heat under reflux

Alcohols --> carbonyls
Reagents: Na2Cr2O7, H2SO4
Conditions: Distil off aldehyde, reflux for ketone

Alcohols --> carboxylic acids
Reagents: KMnO4 or Na2Cr2O7, H2SO4
Conditions: Heat under reflux

Alcohols --> alkoxides
Reagents: Sodium

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Esters

Esters --> alcohols
Reagents: Dilute H2SO4 or NaOH
Conditions: Heat under reflux

Esters --> carboxylic acids
Reagents: Dilute H2SO4 or NaOH
Conditions: Heat under reflux, then H+

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Carboxylic acids

Carboxylic acids --> esters
Reagents: Conc. H2SO4, alcohol
Conditions: Heat under reflux

Carboxylic acids --> alcohols
Reagents: LiAlH4 in ether
Conditions: Heat under reflux

Carboxylic acids --> acid chlorides
Reagents: PCl5
Conditions: R.T.

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Acid chlorides

Acid chlorides --> carboxylic acids
Reagents: H2O
Conditions: R.T.

Acid chlorides --> N-substituted amide
Reagents: Amine
Conditions: R.T.

Acid chlorides --> amides
Reagents: NH3
Conditions: R.T.

Acid chlorides --> esters
Reagents: H2O
Conditions: R.T.

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Carbonyls

Carbonyls --> alcohols
Reagents: LiAlH4 in water
Conditions: R.T.

Carbonyls --> 2,4 dinitrophenylhydrazones
Reagents: 2,4DNPH (Brady's reagent)
Conditions: R.T.

Carbonyls --> carboxylic acids
Reagents: KMnO4 or K2Cr2O7, H2SO4
Conditions: Heat under reflux

Carbonyls --> cyanohydrins
Reagents: KCN (aq)
Conditions: pH 5-8, R.T.

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Alkenes

Alkenes --> diols
Reagents: KMnO4, NaOH
Conditions: R.T.

Alkenes --> alkanes
Reagents: H2
Conditions: Nickel catalyst

Alkenes --> halogenoalkanes
Reagents: HHal or Hal2
Conditions: R.T.

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Amines

Amines --> N-substituted amide
Reagents: Acid chloride
Conditions: R.T.

Amines --> amine salt
Reagents: H+
Conditions: R.T.

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Extra

Alkanes --> halogenoalkanes
Reagents: Hal2
Conditions: UV

Nitriles --> carboxylic acids
Reagents: Dilute HCl
Conditions: Heat under reflux

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General Formulae 1

Alkanes: CnH(2n+2) e.g. C2H6

Alkenes: CnH(2n) e.g. C2H4

Halogenoalkanes: CnH(2n+1)Hal e.g. C2H5Br

Amines: RNH2 e.g. C2H5NH2

Alcohols: ROH e.g. C2H5OH

Esters: RCOOR' e.g. CH3COOC2H5

Acid chlorides: RCOCl e.g. CH3COCl

Carboxylic acids: RCOOH e.g. C2H5COOH

Carbonyls: - Aldehydes: RCHO e.g. CH3CHO
                  - Ketones: RCOR' e.g. CH3COCH3

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General Formulae 2

N-substitued amide: RCONHR' e.g. CH3CONH(C2H5)

Amides: RCONH2 e.g. CH3CONH2

Nitriles: RCN e.g. C2H5CN

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Comments

Lauren

These are brilliant, thank you!

Tooba

These are really good, but what does RT mean? Thank you :)

Luxi

...RT means Room Temperature.

Great job! You could improve by adding examples of the full, balanced eqn for some of the common reaction, which is mainly asked in the exam...

melvin

Alkenes --> alcohols is H3PO4, with steam under 300degrees C. but other than that nailed it ^^

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