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Organic Analysis and Synthesis ­ Answers
1. Calculating percentage composition is normally carried out by combustion analysis. A known mass of the
substance is burned and masses of water and carbon dioxide are produced. To calculate percentage
Mass of carbon dioxide mass of carbon % carbon
Mass of water…

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10. There are several chemical tests to differentiate between aldehydes and ketones:
Fehling's solution: The carbonyl compound is warmed with Fehling's. Aldehydes give a red precipitate but
ketones do not react, so the solution remains blue.
Tollen's reagent: Tollen's reagent is made by adding a few drops of NaOH to…

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Allow the beaker of water to cool, stirring continuously. Note the temperature when bubbles stop coming
out of the capillary tube and the liquid begins to suck back into the capillary tube.
The average of these two temperatures is the boiling temperature of the liquid.
16. Method for melting point…

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Identification BPt MPT
23. There are several ways in which the length of the carbon chain can be increase:
Nucleophilic substitution with KCN: Potassium cyanide reacts with primary, secondary and tertiary
halogenoalkanes. The conditions are heat under reflux in a solution of ethanol and water. This reaction
increases the carbon…

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Conditions: Mix dry reagents
34. Acid chloride to amide:
Equation: RCOCl + 2NH3 RCONH2 + NH4Cl
Reagent: Aqueous ammonia
Conditions: Mix at room temperature
35. Nitration of benzene:
Equation: C6H6 + HNO3 C6H5NO2 + H2O
Organic Product: Nitrobenzene
Reagent: Concentrated nitric acid
Conditions: Mix with concentrated sulfuric acid at 60…

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d) Carcinogenic compounds: Should not be used and a suitable alternative should be used instead.
45. Combinatorial chemistry involves rapid synthesis or the computer simulation of a large number of different but
often structurally related molecules or materials. It is often used in the development of new pharmaceutical
compounds as…


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