A2 Geography Unit 4, Cold Environments Opinions and Values

This is to revise for the January 2013 exam, if it helps anyone else awesome, if not...well it's how I revise ahah

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Antarctica Revision Sheet - Tourism


“Life in the Freezer” broadcast in 1993 boosted British tourists to Antarctica – first commercial flight to McMurdo Sound in 1960, now 300 people cruise ships.

Number of visitors increasing exponentially; 26 000 in 2006 expected over 40 000 in 2012.

Adventure Network International now offers accommodation = CONFLICT – causes environmental concern.

Organisations like the Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition (ASOC) feel the current restrictions are inadequate and protest for – NO commercial flights and shipping  - NO landbased infrastructure development – NO large vessels.

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Antarctica Revision Sheet - Science


Antarctic Treaty Parties – “natural reserve devoted to peace and science” was set up in 1959 and contains 12 nations.

Prohibits: military action/nuclear testing/non planned or approved expeditions.

Allows: scientific research/random inspections of propriety.

M. Bently à “an area unique in international law” as it is administrated by international treaty, and has been for 50 years.

International Geographic Year -1958 was the largest multinational scientific effort in history including 40,000 scientists and 6 nations.

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Antarctica Revision Sheet - Environmental Protecti

Environmental Protection

Geoactive Online:

Covers 14mill km2 – 10% of earth’s surface // 90% of world ice.

No permanent or native population, Antarctic treaty drawn in 1959 was ratified in 1961, designated as a natural reserve by Madrid Protocol on Environmental Protection.

Eco – Tourism – groups no more than 25, serve to be educational, 1966 first ones by Linbladd NOW OVER 20 COMPANIES—can only occur in austral summer.

Some argue that it should be left//others say remoteness and physical extremes act as a “safety valve” restricting access.

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Antarctica Revision Sheet - Global Warming

Global Warming

Global warming is a threat as high latitude areas act as barometers for the effects, despite not causing them.

Every decade since the 1990s temperatures have risen by 0.5oC.

2002 Larson B Ice shelf began breaking up – BLOCKED PENGUIN MIGRATION.

Krill is under threat – basis of food chain – commercial fishing and high temperatures put it at risk.

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Antarctica Revision Sheet - Methodology


Exploreantarctica.com – aimed at public to raise awareness of environmental threat – BIAS

GeoActive Online – topical article in well regarded geography magazine – aim for reader interest but largely correct

Poles Apart by M.Bently – a Durham professor, well regarded, highly accurate GOOD SOURCE

CoolPlanet Magazine – good information if appeal to reader is ignored

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