Antarctica Revision Sheet - Tourism
“Life in the Freezer” broadcast in 1993 boosted British tourists to Antarctica – first commercial flight to McMurdo Sound in 1960, now 300 people cruise ships.
Number of visitors increasing exponentially; 26 000 in 2006 expected over 40 000 in 2012.
Adventure Network International now offers accommodation = CONFLICT – causes environmental concern.
Organisations like the Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition (ASOC) feel the current restrictions are inadequate and protest for – NO commercial flights and shipping - NO landbased infrastructure development – NO large vessels.
Antarctica Revision Sheet - Science
Antarctic Treaty Parties – “natural reserve devoted to peace and science” was set up in 1959 and contains 12 nations.
Prohibits: military action/nuclear testing/non planned or approved expeditions.
Allows: scientific research/random inspections of propriety.
M. Bently à “an area unique in international law” as it is administrated by international treaty, and has been for 50 years.
International Geographic Year -1958 was the largest multinational scientific effort in history including 40,000 scientists and 6 nations.
Antarctica Revision Sheet - Environmental Protecti
Covers 14mill km2 – 10% of earth’s surface // 90% of world ice.
No permanent or native population, Antarctic treaty drawn in 1959 was ratified in 1961, designated as a natural reserve by Madrid Protocol on Environmental Protection.
Eco – Tourism – groups no more than 25, serve to be educational, 1966 first ones by Linbladd NOW OVER 20 COMPANIES—can only occur in austral summer.
Some argue that it should be left//others say remoteness and physical extremes act as a “safety valve” restricting access.
Antarctica Revision Sheet - Global Warming
Global warming is a threat as high latitude areas act as barometers for the effects, despite not causing them.
Every decade since the 1990s temperatures have risen by 0.5oC.
2002 Larson B Ice shelf began breaking up – BLOCKED PENGUIN MIGRATION.
Krill is under threat – basis of food chain – commercial fishing and high temperatures put it at risk.
Antarctica Revision Sheet - Methodology
Exploreantarctica.com – aimed at public to raise awareness of environmental threat – BIAS
GeoActive Online – topical article in well regarded geography magazine – aim for reader interest but largely correct
Poles Apart by M.Bently – a Durham professor, well regarded, highly accurate GOOD SOURCE
CoolPlanet Magazine – good information if appeal to reader is ignored