Factors which should be taken into account when designing a good user interface
- Expertise of the user (expert user will need shortcuts so that the task can be completed as quickly as possible whereas a novice will need a number of steps to guide them)
- Consistency of signposting and pop up information (every 'next' should be in the same place using same icon/ navigation around the program should be clear, consistent and easy to follow)
- Clear navigational structure (helps users learn their way around the system)
- Layout appropriate to task (e.g. Uncluttered text for young children learning to read/ bright colour scheme to attract a young child's attention)
- Use by disabled people/disabled access (e.g. blind person could use Braille keyboard and printer)
HCI Questions Continued
Features of a HCI which would help a disabled person
- Visually Impaired -> Have their screens configured using large fonts, computer can speak the words when they are being typed in, use special Braille keyboards to enter the data and use Braille printers to produce output which other blind people can read
- Deaf -> Visual messages on screen instead of sound for the deaf
- Colour blind -> Use of correct colour schemes
- Physically disabled with no arm/hand movement -> Brainwave controlled devices
Advantages and disadvantages of using a wireless network over a cabled network
- Allows people the freedom of working anywhere a signal can be received
- Global set of standards - you can use Wi-Fi all over the world
- Can use a variety of devices such as tablets, mobile phones etc.
- Health and safety - tidier desktop with no trailing cables
- Power consumption is high - means laptops soon exhaust their rechargeable batteries
- May be security problems even when encryption is used / hacked - Interference if wireless network signals overlap
- Very limited range (e.g. 150 feet)
- There may be health problems in using Wi-Fi
Compare and contrast peer-to-peer and client server networks
Peer-to-peer -> Cost saving (no server is needed, so all computers can be same), Status (all machines have same status), No network manager is needed (all users take responsibility for the network), Knowledge (users need more IT knowledge), Easy to set up (simplest of computer networks, anyone can set them up), No reliance on server (don't have to worry about server breaking down), Security (poorer security as resources are shared), Back ups cannot be made centrally (this places the responsibility on all the users to back up their own data)
Client server -> More expensive (servers are expensive to buy), one machine is more important than the rest, Need specialist knowledge (need a person with technical knowledge to manage network), Network manager allocates access to resources on the network, if server breaks down then network becomes unusable, better security as it is centralised and one person's responsibility, backups and software installation done centrally
Security Policies Questions
Describe dinstinct guidelines a code of conduct should contain
- Responsibilities -> What staff can and cannot do
- Repecting rights of others + description
- Protecting hardware and software from malicious damage + description
- Abiding by current legislation + description
- Authorisation + description - what parts of the system they can use
- Consequences of breaking the code + description
Security Policies Questions Continued...
Describe/discuss possible operational procedures and use distinct examples to illustrate these procedures
- Screening potential employees -> Ensure staff are monitored
- Define procedures for use of removable media, personal backup procedures -> How often done, have they got to use special machines, etc.
- Establish a disaster recovery programme -> Who does what and when, including checking the standby equipment, backup plans e.g. how often
- Set up auditing procedures (audit trails) to detect misuse -> Who/what/when
- Logon procedures/ User ID's and passwords/ set up user accounts -> Allocating access rights, etc. change user ID's and passwords regularly, etc.
Features of an effective MIS:
Accuracy and relevancy of the data - Data used from the transaction systems that supply data to the management system must be accurate, avoid information overload by not producing any data that is not needed as this can waste time and make information harder to use
Flexibility of the system -Managers of different sections have different requirements and the MIS must be able to cope with this, managers of different parts of the business such as marketing and finance have vastly different needs
Providing data/information in an appropriate form (table/graph) - Managers will need the data presented in the easiest form for them to interpret, some will want it in tabular form and some in graphical
Accessible to a wide range of users -Can be used by managers who have a range of ICT skills and knowledge
Give information when required -Timing is critical as there is no point in giving good information after the date it is needed for
MIS Questions Continued...
Features of a Poor MIS (what Causes it to be Poor)
Inadequate consultation with managers during the analysis of the system to find out what their requirements from the system are
Lack of training for managers means many managers do not use the system as they should
Inappropriate hardware or software being used, for example the network may run slowly when processing the information needed when producing MIS reports
Inadequate initial analysis which therefore means the system doesn't do exactly what it should do
Poor communication between professionals
Requirements a Company has to put into Place so that a Website can be used for Interactive Online Shopping
Maintaining a company website / need for trained staff
Catalogue of stock, stock database / table so that one can immediately see if something is available or whether there will be a delay
Methods of secure payment / shopping trolley
Database / table of customer orders / bids so that immediate searches can be made to find and update customer information
Order / bid tracking / email confirmation
E-commerce Questions Continued...
Advantages and Disadvantages of On-line Shopping to both the Business and the Customer
Advantages to customers - Enables people to find out what they do and what they sell, there is no travelling which saves costs and time / delivered to the door, allows disabled people to do more shopping, can be done 24/7, much quicker to do a price comparison, can find obscure goods not available locally, see other customer reviews, order tracking and better deals available online
Advantages to businesses - People can email them with enquiries, orders, requests, technology has advanced and now made a lot more possible, overheads are cut / large savings on shop, warehouse and office space / less money tied up in stock / less stock wastage, wider customer base / can reach an international audience, more efficient customer targeting, can target sales because you can see rivals' prices on their website and alter your prices and you can sell 24/7
Disadvantages -Credit card fraud, fake websites (goods do not exist), copycat websites to extract bank account information, fewer shops on the High Street, lack of social interaction, increase in delivery vans, cost of maintaing a company website, need for trained staff, can't fully assess the quality of the goods / can't try it on and competitors can see your prices and target your company
Explain what is meant by a Relational Database
A large collection of data items and links between them (structured in such a way that) it allows it to be accessed by a number of different applications programs / a group of tables linked together by primary and foreign keys
Explain what is meant by Data Normalisation
A staged (mathematical) process which removes repeated groups of data and inconsistencies / Simplifying data structures so that attributes in each table only relate to the entity / Normalisation is the organisation of data into tables which relate to a single entity
Explain what is meant by a Distributed Database
A distributed database is a single database that is under the control of a DBMS where the storage devices are not all attached to a common processor. Instead the data is stored in storage devices attached to multiple computers usually located across a network / A distributed database has data stored on a number of computers at different locations but appears as one logical database
"Nobody really owns the Internet or tries to control it" - Discuss with Suitable Examples, whether you think that this Statement is true or false
Ownership -> Who owns the Internet -> Because of the increased commercial value of activities on the Internet will a few media giants take control and effectively determine content?
Ownership -> Intellectual property rights-Ownership rights to data -> Do you own a joke if you put it on the Internet?, Do the Copyright Laws of one country apply to another country?
Control -> Lack of policing ->Information is not monitored, illegal downloading of material such as music is starting to be taken to prosecute, increase of Internet crime, security scares and terrorist activity
Control -> Censorship -> Little control over content of material on Internet but some governments have started to control what can be seen (North Korea, China, etc.), freedom of speech issues
Control -> Hacking ->Easy to capture Internet traffic, can use somebody's wireless Internet connection without permission, can connect to Internet through an open network (to slow down network)
Control -> Privacy -> Privacy issues - social networking sites, e-commerce sites, e-mail monitoring at work, etc. erode a user's privacy, examples in newspapers of people being refused employment, sacked because their social networking sites show them engaging in 'questionable behaviour'
Internet Questions Continued...
Control -> Illicit material -> Lot of pornographic images / videos on the Internet, lots of the material comes from other countries where it is legal and therefore not much can be done to stop it, sending spam (waste time deleting it)
Control -> Incitement to violence -> Encouraging rioting / revolution, bomb making sites, discrimination of ethnic / minority groups and violent videos
Control -> Misuse of social media -> Increased risk of stalking / mobile phone stalking / grooming / paedophiles, cyber bullying (in chat rooms, e-mail, blogs, text messages), deliberately setting up websites containing incorrect information / suicide sites, spreading rumours, photo editing software to distort reality
Control -> Control mechanisms -> Parents/adults are worried that children can accidentally access the material on the Internet, even with a software filter it is hard to be completely sure that material is excluded, if a site is banned then it could make it more popular
Control -> Accuracy -> Information isn't checked to make sure it is accurate, plagiarism, some web sites give medical advice but it can be incorrect however they are not held liable