2.2) Germany: Social developments.

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Social welfare reforms:

  • Aftermath of way changes Germany's society and culture.
  • Weimar gave more rights, liberty and equality.
  • There was a conflict between traditionalists and mondernists.

WELFARE REFORMS 1924-27:

  • 1924, Public assistance systems - Modernised way of helping poor.
  • 1925, State Accident Insurance System - Extended help to injured and occupational diseases.
  • 1927, National Employment Insurance System - Benefits to unemployed financed by workers.
  • But Welfare system promised more than delivered.
  • Very expensive, supported more than 300,000 War veterans, widows and disabled.
  • Raised taxes after 1924.
  • Tried to keep expendature down by a tightening of 'means test' to see if those needing support really needed it and delayed benefits.
  • Many War veterans and families were humiliated by Weimar.
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Living standard, Lifestyles and Women.

  • 1924-28, Living standard improved.
  • Those in work got wage increases.
  • The Welfare dependent were less happy but were helped not to fall into poverty.
  • Businessmen benefited from trade.
  • But those who lost out in Hyperinflation never gained money.
  • Farmers suffered from trading and low pay.
  • Women, Jews and Younger groups were affected.

WOMEN'S POSITION:

  • Many like Elsa Hermann refused to be Housewives.
  • New woman was a term used to describe their life after war.
  • Was sexually free, independent and more public.
  • Given more voting rights and education, equal pay and civil service.
  • During war many young men died, young women couldn't marry.
  • War put many women in employment, women lives were different to their mother.
  • But although constitution gave more rights, Civil Code 1896 still existed.
  • Involved Husband making key decisions on family, if wife should work etc.
  • Many women weren't happy, BFD women groups wanted tradition back.
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New woman was not real.

EMPLOYMENT:

  • Myth: Women had more rights, in work and were 36% of Germans workforce.
  • Reality: Many Women actually left jobs so ex-soldiers could work, they got married, paid   less than men and criticised as being dual earners by Conservatives.

SEXUAL FREEDOM:

  • Myth: Birth control was widespread and birth rate declined, divorce increased and               abortions rose in 1930 1m a year.
  • Reality: Aborton was illegal in 1930 it was 12,000, Conservatives criticised the low Birth     rate, Churches opposed birth control, divorce etc and many women were apart of                 the Church.

POLITICS AND PUBLIC LIFE:

  • Myth: Women could vote and became reich deputies more than Britain, active in local         government.
  • Reality:No women reps in reichstag, cabinets, political parties and parties never spoke for   them.
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German Youth:

  • Young were breaking from family, school and religion.
  • More crime and anti-social behaviour.
  • Left school at 14 to start apprenticeships employment.
  • A lot of youth unemployed.
  • 1925-26, 17% youth unemployed.
  • Benefits and day centres helped fund skills.
  • Could help unemployed.
  • Many joined gangs with mutual interests.

YOUTH CLIQUES IN HAMBURG:

  • Clique is a gang.
  • Common is big cities.
  • Hamburg cliques were Farmes' fear, Red Apaches, Death Diers and Eagle's claw.
  • Names represented toughnes.
  • Many broke the law.
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Youth Education and Groups.

  • Gymnasiums were for students' wanting to go uni.
  • Realschule gave 6 years of schooling.
  • Many class and religious divisions.
  • Wanted to stop divisions.
  • Intro of elementary schools for everyone was success.
  • Church influence still powerful.

3 MAIN YOUTH GROUPS

  • WANDEVOGEL - Middle class boys, Nationalists, hated industrialisation, practised nudism.
  • CHURCH YOUTH - Catholics and Protestants had groups, Catholics had diff groups for diff sects of youth, e.g. New Germany for middle class. Both promoted religion.
  • POLITICAL YOUTH GROUPS - SPD youth, Young Communist league KPD, Hitler Youth Nazis.
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JEWS

  • Half 1m Jews in Germany, 80% in cities and educated.
  • Many felt more German than Jew.
  • Wanted Assimulation, keeping culture but fully integrated in society.
  • Key in Banking, University and culture.

POLITICS AND PRESS:

  • Powerful before 1914 too. 
  • 2 Jew Newspapers, Berlin Tageblatt and Frankfurter Zeitfung.
  • USPD Hugo Haase, Spartacist Rosa Luxemburg and Kurt Eisner were Jewish.
  • Kurt Eisner was leading SPD member in Bavaria.
  • Jewish families, Rothschild owned 18% banks in Germany.
  • Good as Law and Medicine, 1/2 of them in Berlin were Jewish.
  • Jews Succesful in acedemia,9 German Jews won NPP.
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Anti-semism

  • Many Jews wished to Assimilate via dress, language and life.
  • Many Jews married Germans.
  • During Golden age, anti-semitism was fading away.
  • Some Germans didn't accept them, mainly the right wing.
  • 1918-24, Jewish Bolshevism, Communist and Jews were linked.
  • Hyperinflation led to anger to Jewish financers
  • Accused Jews of corruption and exploitation.
  • 1925, Barmat case worsened anti-semitism.
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German Culture:

  • Time of freedom and experimentation in Arts.
  • Began to modernise in art, architecture, music and literature.
  • Modernists V Conservatives.

NIGHTCLUBS:

  • Nightlife was extremely popular.
  • Cabarets and Nudity was popular.
  • Gay people expressed themselves.
  • American Jazz grew, comedians attacked politicians.
  • But many saw this as morally degenerating, USA culture has influenced German and discipline was lost after 1918.

ART AND MUSIC:

  • Expressionsm dominated art and music, expressed real emotion of Germans.
  • Atonel Music avoided traditional forms of beauty, conveyed powerful emotions.
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German Culture:

LITERATURE:

  • Expressionism again dominated.
  • Poets had free form of writing.
  • Displayed persons mental state, showed revolt to parent too.

ARCHITECTURE:

  • Bauhaus was modern influence.
  • Was an architecture school.
  • Many started to use steel, concrete and glass in architecture.

THEATRE AND FILM:

  • Expressionist ideas.
  • Used symbols and shapes to tell a message.
  • Attaced Capitalism, nationalism and war.
  • Seen as cultural Bolsheviks.
  • Film made Berlin centre of cinema.
  • Blue Angel was popular which was about a women seducing a proffessor.
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