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Memel Land­
German Territorial Losses After the Treaty of Versailles. seized by
Danzig­ declared a `free Lithuania in 1920
Northern Schleiswig ­ voted to become
part of Denmark (75%) 12 city' by the LoN 10
Southern Schleiswig ­ voted to
remain German (81%)
Allenstein ­ voted to
remain part of
Germany (97.5%)
Marienwerder ­ voted to
remain German (92.8%)
Germany Polish corridor ­ given to Poland.
Eupen and Malmedy ­ given
to Belgium
Saarland ­ administered by Eastern Upper Silesia ­ Polish
France under LoN until 1935, speaking, given to Poland after
when there would be a plebiscite.
638% voted not t return to
Western Upper Silesia ­ given back to Germany after a
plebiscite, in which 68% voted to return.
Alsace Lorraine ­ given to France
after 47 years old German rule.
German Losses: Percentages
100 % of her pre war colonies
80 % of her pre war fleet
Rhineland ­ administered by 48 % of all iron production
German, but demilitarised.
16 % of all coal production
13 % of her 1914 territory
12 % of her population…read more

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Military Restrictions placed upon
Germany by the Treaty of Versailles
100,000 +
1. Army limited to 100,000 men
2. Rhineland demilitarised.
3. No tanks
4. No air force
5. Naval restrictions, including a ban on
submarines…read more

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Timeline of events 1933 - 36
January 1935:
October 1933: Saar returned to
Germany withdrew Germany after
from Disarmament July 1934: plebiscite; 91%
Conference and January 1934: Unsuccessful Nazi coup voted for Germany
League of Nations. Pact with Poland in Austria in free vote.
Axis and Anti June 1935:
Comintern Pact Anglo-Germany.
(with Japan, March 1936: Naval Agreement March 1935:
negotiated by Rhineland negotiated by Conscription and
Ribbentrop) remilitarised Ribbentrop Luftwaffe announced…read more

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The Saar Plebiscite: Non Aggression Pact with Poland: · Austria had been forbidden in the Treaty to unite with Germany.
· The Saar was a coal rich area under · Poland gained independence after WWI, at Russian · There was a Nazi movement in Austria. 1934 - Austrian Chancellor,
French control after WWI, to compensate and German expense. Germany and the USSR who opposed German union, was assassinated. Hitler approved it.
for economic damage. threatened Poland from both sides. · This alarmed Mussolini. The Treaty of St. Germain gave Italy the
·As laid down in Treaty, a vote was held ·Hitler saw Poland as an ally against USSR so when South Tyrol, which had 200,000 German speaking Austrians.
in 1935, so the people could chose their Poland suggested the pact, Hitler saw the advantages: Mussolini was determined to keep it, and feared that Hitler would
future. it secured Germany's eastern frontier, demonstrated reclaim it if Austria became part of Nazi Germany.
·90% chose to rejoin Germany ­ peaceful intentions and hostility to the USSR and ·He sent troops to the Austrian border to warn Hitler off, and Hitler
seemed like a great triumph, but they weakened Poland's alliance with France. was forced to back down. He misjudged the situation.
were GERMANS voting to be part of ·It was unpopular with the people, the FO and the Army ·Not a conservative nationalist move.
Germany. Hitler just happened to be in ·NOT conservative nationalist.
power when it happened. ·Successful in the short term.
Remilitarisation of the Rhineland
·Hitler had not expected to be able to remilitarise the Rhineland
(thus securing Germany's western flank against the French) before
1937, but in 1936, he saw his opportunity.
· In 1935, Italy invaded Abyssinia, and by 1936, the League of
Withdrawal from the disarmament Nations was distracted by in solving this conflict. The French were
conference and League of Nations: suffering from political turmoil, and British public opinion was in
· Hitler was always going to withdraw from Hitler's favour (compared it to the British walking into Yorkshire).
·In March 1936, German troops marched into the Rhineland ­ Hitler
Disarmament Conference; he wanted to rearm.
said it was the most nerve-racking day of his life, and that if the
·The French refusal to disarm gave him an excuse -
Hitler argued military imbalance was unfair, Britain Nazi Foreign Policy 1933 French had resisted, the Germans would have been humiliated.
·The Army and Foreign Office were against the timing ­ they
sympathised. ­ 36. thought it was too risky, but not the principle. 99% of the public were
· He was also determined to withdraw from the League
in favour of it.
of Nations and did so skilfully ­ he claimed that the
League did not treat Germany fairly but stressed desire
for peace.
·These were typical conservative nationalist actions,
and supported by public opinion, Foreign Office
and the army.
Rome Berlin Axis
· Took place in 1937, November.
·Took place partly because of the ideological similarity.
Anglo-German Naval Agreement: · Tensions between Italy and the West
· Hitler's promise to allow Mussolini to keep the South Tyrol
·The British empire was threatened by Japan in the
· Complimentary ambitions
East, and by Italy in the Mediterranean.
Conscription: · Was a Nazi move which a conservative nationalist
·They couldn't afford another naval arms race with
· Treaty forbade Germany to have an air government would not have done
Germany because of economic problems.
force and limited army to 100,000 men. · Reflected Hitler's desire for Anschluss.
·They jumped at Hitler's offer of a deal where Germany
·Hitler was determined to rearm Germany, would not increase her navy by more than 35% of the
and by 1935, felt confident that Britain and size of the British, if Britain allowed Germany to break
France would not react to announcing the naval restrictions placed by the Treaty.
German rearmament. ·Hitler was sacrificing nothing - he had no plans to
· He announced the Luftwaffe and an army expand the navy beyond the specifications, and no Anti-Comintern Pact
of 500,000 men ­ France increased the size intention of sticking to the 35% limit. ·Germany and Japan shared hostility towards the USSR from the West and East.
of their army, so gave him an excuse. ·The Foreign Minister did not think the British would ·The `comintern' was the Communist International, based in Moscow, dedicated to
· Foreign Office and Army supported the agree, so Hitler sent Ribbentrop to negotiate. spreading communism all over the world.
move generally, but thought it was too soon. ·Despite his rudeness, the British were so ·Japan had a right wing nationalist government committed to living space and
· Hitler's boldness paid off ­ Britain, France desperate that they accepted the deal. willing to use force to achieve ambitions ­ similar to Nazi government.
and Italy protested, but did nothing, ·Hitler thought this paved the way for the ·Japan threatened British interests as well, so the alliance put pressure on Britain.
except form the weak Stresa Front. British alliance he wanted. ·Negotiated by Ribbentrop and opposed by Foreign Office and Army.
·Lost valuable revenue from arms sales to China.…read more

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How bold was Hitler in his foreign policy up to 1937?
Withdrawal from Disarmament - · Showed caution despite Foreign Office
Conference and League of Nations and army urging him to withdraw ­ this
allowed him to exploit the French refusal to
Polish Pact ·Ignored the advice of the foreign office and
the army.
Austria · Too bold ­ open breach of the Treaty of
Versailles (Anschluss was forbidden) and
resulted in Italian intervention.
Saar - -
Conscription · Open breach of the Treaty of Versailles.
·Ignored the advice of the foreign office and
the army.
·Risked British and French intervention
when Germany was weak.
Anglo-German Naval Agreement · Open breach of the Treaty of Versailles.
·Ignored the advice of the foreign office and
the army.
Rhineland · Open breach of the Treaty of Versailles.
·Ignored the advice of the foreign office and
the army.
·Risked British and French intervention
when Germany was weak.
Rome-Berlin Axis ·Ignored the advice of the foreign office and
the army.
Anti-Comintern Pact ·Ignored the advice of the foreign office and
the army.…read more

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