2.1 Structures and bonding


1.1 Chemical bonding

Elements bond together to become more stable. when they bond, they become compounds. these are the three types of chemical bonding;

Metalic bonding = where two metal element bond together. 


Ionic bonding = where one metal element and one non-metal element bond together.

copper sulphate

Covalent bonding = where two non-metal elements bond together.


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1.2 Ionic Bonding

Ionic bonding usually occurs between a metal and non-metal . The metal atom donates one or more electrons to the non-metal atom so that both atoms achieve a full outer shell. The structure is therefore made up of (+ve) and (-ve) ions held together by electrostatic attraction.

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dot and cross diagram


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1.4 Covalent bonding

Occurs between the two non-metal atoms. 

The atoms share outer electrons to achieve a full outer shell.

they generally have lower melting and boiling points.


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1.5 Metals

Metallic element are all the same in size. THey form giant structures in which layers of atoms are arranged in regular pattern.


Bonding between differrent types of metals, are strong and have higher melting and boiling points. When metals bond alloys are formed.

Free electrons are also called delocalised electrons

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metallic bonding

(http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/gcsechem_60.gif) the free electrons are passed onto the next metal ion.

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