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Overall...
Current development of the Maghreb
countries
Economic and political unions and the effect
they have on development
Barriers to development (including debt)
Routes to development (emphasis on tourism
in Morocco including Plan Azur and Vision
2010)
Future environmental challenges as a result
of development & solutions (focussing on
desalinisation)…read more

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Current Development of the
Maghreb…read more

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Development of the Maghreb
Overview
High levels of tourism in Morocco and Tunisia
Libya has highest GDP ('08-09) - $14,000, largely
due to membership of OPEC
Oil exports fuelling development in Libya and
Algeria
FDI in countries other than Mauritania from
Arab and European nations
Lowest GDP in Mauritania ($2,100)
Investment in infrastructure in countries other
than Mauritania
All countries reducing external debt ­ though
Mauritania remains most indebted (58.9% of GDP
after help from HIPC)
Trade links in region ­ road to Senegal
Member of unions (GAFTA, AMU) and close ties
to EU…read more

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Libya and Algeria - Oil
Libya has a GDP of $14,000, Algeria has a GDP of $7,000
Heavily dependent on revues from the oil sector, which contribute
95% of total export earnings (both countries)
Increase in oil prices over the last decade has helped these countries
generate revenue and grow their economies
Both Libya and Algeria are members of OPEC, which allows them to
control their oil production rates and therefore helps ensure oil prices
remain high
As well as oil industry, in Libya there is a growing service sector which
employs 37% of the population
In Algeria, this decreases to 29% of the population, the lowest of all the
Maghreb countries
However, Algeria also has the lowest external debt of all the countries,
at 2.6% of GDP
This is closely followed by Libya, with 5.6% external debt
Synoptic link: pattern of economic development parallels the Gulf
states, where the oil industry has fuelled economic growth in the
region
Illustrates the importance of commodities such as oil in generating
economic development…read more

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Tunisia and Morocco - Tourism
Tunisia has a GDP of $7,900, Morocco has a GDP of
$4,000 ­ wealth largely generated by the tourist
industry
In both these countries, tourism accounts for over 16%
of GDP and approximately 15% of employment
The urban population of the countries also illustrates
their level of economic development, with Tunisia at
67% and Morocco at 56%
However both these countries have significant levels of
external debt, accounting for 20.1% of Morocco's GDP
and 50.4% of Tunisia's GDP
The lack of secondary industries (manufacturing) in
these countries has meant the debt decreased slowly
between 2005 between 2008
Nevertheless the slow but steady growth contradicts
Rostow's Model of Economic Development, which
dictates that the secondary sector is necessary for `take-
off' of the economy (synoptic link)
Illustrates how tourism, a tertiary industry, has allowed
Tunisia and Morocco to develop economically…read more

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