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Structure of the Earth
Inner Core Outer core Mantle Crust
Solid, iron and nickel. Semi-molten, Semi-solid. Asthenosphere Divided into plates. Asthenosphere + lithosphere
5000°. Lots of (upper mantle) - 20km thick. = 80km thick. Oceanic crust SIMA (young
iron and Magnesium and iron and <200myo) mainly granite,…

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Volcanoes e.g. Nevada Del Ruiz 1985. Montserrat Soufriere
Hills 1995-1998. Mount Etna, Sicily 1983. Mount Krakatoa,
Indonesia 1883. Pinatubo, Philippines 1991. Mount St.
Helens, Washington DC 1980. Solfatara, Naples, Italy 1198.
CONSERVATIVE (side by side/same direction different speeds)
No earthquakes - shallow focus earthquakes
Pacific (fastest 5-9cm/year) vs N. American…

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Pahoehoe flow: Is fluid rather than viscous, but does not move quickly. Often the surface layer is static whilst flow
continues beneath.
Shield ­ often occur at constructive margins, basaltic
lava, short and wide e.g. Mauna Loa, Hawaii
Fissure ­ elongated crack of surface crust, basaltic
lava (runny)…

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Swelling ground (rising magma)
Seismic activity (splitting rock), smaller tremors
Groundwater levels
Emission of gases ­ high sulphur content = volcano close to erupting e.g. Lake Nyos 1986 limnic eruption
Changes in the magnetic fields
Animal behaviour

Training and education…

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Love waves can only travel through solids. They move the surface from side to side. These waves cause the most damage
due to their shearing effect; they are also the slowest waves.
Rayleigh waves can travel through liquids and solids. They radiate from the epicentre in a rolling motion.


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