First 353 words of the document:
Vietnam Articles: opposition
Who Opposed Vietnam and Why?
A diverse coalition of individuals and organisations; 12 different social and political groups from 1960s to 1970s.
Pacifists, Clergy, Women's groups, Students, Academics, Socialists, Communists, Musicians, Veterans, Liberals, Civil
Rights Activists, Yippies (Youth International Party)
Opposition had been growing since the 1954 Geneva Conference divided country between North and South
Vietnam. The failure of the Diem regime, heightened by self-immolation of monks in 1963 and the cold reactions,
sparked active opposition to surface in 1963.
Pacifists, Clergy and Women
1963 Sept. SANE (committee for sane nuclear policy) called for US disengagement.
Quakers protested 1960s onwards. E.g. 82 year old Alice Hertz self-immolation 1965.
Catholic clergy: anti-communist supported war (Diem's Catholic motives)
Clergy and Laity were concerned about Vietnam CALCAV
`Mothers Against War' and `Mothers Lobby for Peace in Vietnam' Jane Fonda , v.feminist.
Oct. 1963 Madam Nhu's visit demonstrations by Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), who saw Vietnam as
symptomatic of foreign policy, and Students Peace Union (SPU).
Escalation in March 1965 academics joined opposition (120 unis doing "teach-ins" by '65.)
1965 April Washington DC by SDS, 20,000 protesters.
Martin Luther King
Initially took no action through loyalty/ thanks to JFK for civil rights.
SNCC and Black Power both showed and created growing criticism of the war.
April 1967 New York Speech he described the war as "contrary to all that America stands for"
Oct. 1967 March on the Pentagon; 55,000 protesters
Radical groups grew during this phase; socialists like Norman Thomas; militants like Social Workers Party. Kennedy
and MLK assassinated in 1968 strengthened radical support and influence.
Democratic Presidential Convention Chicago 7 accused of inciting riots// Yippies demonstrated.
`Peace with honour' slogan 1970 announced widening to Cambodia = 2nd wave of protests eg Kent
My Lai/ Calley in media 1971
VVAW founded 1967 '71 threw away medals Washington DC//'72 Miami Pres. Convention opposed Nixon.
Nixon reelected 1972/ Paris Peace Accords 1973 lost anyway = USA humiliated and anti-war movement vindicated.