Urbanisation - Rio de Janeiro Case Study

Comprehensive revision notes on Rio de Janeiro case study for AQA Geography Unit 3, World Cities.

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Rio is situated around the huge Guanabara Bay in Brazil.
In 2002, 6 million people lived in the main urban area and 10 million in the metropolitan region.There are two sides
to Rio; there are the beaches of Copacabana with luxury housing and the poor side with bad housing and
pollution,etc.
Causes of Urbanisation:
Problems of Urbanisation in Rio:
Socio-Economic:
Mountains limiting sprawl making the city very over crowded and congested - also encouraging people to
settle on marginal land - steep mountain sides
Rain can cause flash floods and mudslides on the hills, which wipe out the flimsy houses. Storms in 1988
caused 200 deaths.
Housing - development of informal settlements (favelas over 600!) - largest Roccinha which has a population
of 150 000+
60% of population live in favelas - marginal land dangerous as unstable
Favelas are made out of any available materials; usually wood, corrugated iron, broken bricks and tiles
Very high density - too narrow for cars
Half a million homeless people living on the streets
Favelas have a severe lack of services
30% of the city has no sewerage
55% of untreated waste dumped into G.Bara Bay
Energy shortages
Favelas
Limited education and employment
Employment - Informal sector developed
High levels of crime due to unemployment and huge inequality
Crime - Organised crime in favelas - drug trafficking, violence to non-residents
Tourists on Rio's beaches told not to take valuables
Environmental:
Traffic: The hills of Rio means there are limited traffic routes, so there is constantly congestion, pollution and
noise
High levels of photochemical smog - exhaust fumes and industry - air pollution can't escape - mountainous
surroundings
Lagoa Rodrigo Channel - eutrophication from sewage
Guanabara Bay - marine life non existent - solid waste dumping
Extensive sprawl -> ruining beautiful coastal areas.
Solutions:
Favela Bairro Project:
-£200m to improve 60 of the 600 favelas includes:
Recognition of favelas as neighbourhoods - seeking to provide essential services
Bringing inhabitants into mainstream society - generating formal employment
Credit schemes to improve houses
100% mortgage schemes
Improving education - encouraging volunteers
Financial incentives for schooling children
Olympic Village in Roccinha
Private University - cheap

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Rio State Governor, Sérgio Cabral, announced new plans to clean up Guanabara Bay, one of Brazil's most iconic
and beautiful natural landmarks plans to spend £300m on a clear up and on increasing access to sewerage to
reduce untreated waste.…read more

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