Case Studies for Human Geography - Conflict and World cities

Includes case studies and examples that directly relate to AQA Unit 3 Human geography. Lots of facts and figures, a few gaps though! Hope it helps, it's literally crammed with facts and examples on conflict and world cities to hopefully guarantee some extra marks in an exam. Also relavent to other topics as there is naturally some cross over.

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  • Created on: 11-06-13 20:38
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Case Studies
key: Social issues Economic issues Environmental issues Political issues
Dharavi ­ LEDC Urbanisation (impact of population growth)
One of Asia's largest slums, located in the centre of Mumbai, India's financial capital.
Dharavi is old swampland ­ poor land for developing
1 million inhabitants live in `informal housing' ­ limited access to resources eg water
­ only have clean water for 2 hours per day (competition)
18'000 people per acre ­ extremely high population density + popn growth (24/1000
BR in India) LE is 50 compared to 60 in Mumbai. Urbanisation = flooding
85% population employed within the slum
Caste system + poverty. 33% less than $1.25 per day. Segregation and less
Traffic danger ­ railways and Sion Flyover
15% access to transport
Open sewers, toxic sludge, landfill all contribute to dirty water, rats, presence of
hyperdermic needles
No building regulations, density packed housing ­ fire risks, spread of disease,
hygiene. Asbestos roofing.
Eyesore. Location ­ peninsula so can't expand
Lack of education, overcrowded schools, children work, lack of skills, decrease in
labour costs, shift schooling. 60 schools. Only 50% girls attend secondary school
Lack of rights re land ownership
Family live in one room, privacy, hygiene. One toilet oer 1440 residents
Recycling industry, sustainable, BOSERUP THEORY $1bn turnover per year from micro
Low crime rate, sense of worth and happiness
Diversity of industry ­ wide economic base, migrants, neighbourhoods
Liverpool - MEDC Urbanisation
Area of significant deprivation and slow economic growth in 1980s.
Mid 1800s ­ Rapid urbanisation occurred due to its ports and geographical location for
trade. In the early C19, 40% of all world trade was passing through Liverpool. Was one of the
first cities to have a railway = good transport links. Had natural resources = shipping industry.
End of WWI ­ Decline in the shipping industry. Containerisation reduced employment. Trade
damaged by war. Manchester ship canal built to bypass Liverpool and cut costs.

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­ Slum clearance of inner city back to back housing which was built to house workers in
industrial revolution. Clearance of 78'000 residential properties. High rise flats built quickly to
house the `poorest poor', low quality materials. 60 tower blocks providing 5500 homes.
Poor standard. Economic decline 80's and 90's saw disrepair. Social problems as destruction
of community spirit - `run down'.
Late 1960s ­ Small economic base of shipping industry. Widespread redundancy as industry
declined further. Spiral of decline. Forced people to leave Liverpool.…read more

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Bayston Hill ­ MEDC Counterurbanisation
Traditionally agricultural village near Shrewsbury, that joins to the main trunk road A49
to Shropshire and Shrewsbury.
CAUSE Underwent population grows due to 19th century migration for coal mining
and quarrying. 1901 popn was 870. 1961 was just under 2000. In the year 2000 pop
was 5345. Improved transport links.
EFFECT Council houses built, commuters moved working in Shrewsbury, Telford or
the West Midlands, character of village changed. Residents didn't know each other.
Second primary school built. Dormitory village.…read more

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Improving Rio's Favelas ­ Roçinha
Self-help scheme
- Small scale
- Local Skills used to upgrade neighbourhood
- Government provides materials eg. Cement bricks
- Sustainable ­ less vandalism, pride in neighbourhood, cheaper local skills used
- 75% homes in Rocinha now have electricity because of scheme
Site and Service Scheme
- Local authority led and targets smaller favelas
- Improve area slowly as well as social issues
- Larger brick houses installed, sanitation and water supplies.…read more

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Urban Regeneration POSITIVE NEGATIVE
London Docklands Leeds Redevelop Hulme, Notting Hill, London
LDDC established in Council scheme to Inner city Gentrification by
1981 - private investors improve appearance of regeneration individuals due to
£440 million to combat city and bring life back to scheme started in increased status.
cumulative causation of the centre 1991. Partnership Properties refurbished
decline scheme - bidding
High rents charged ­ Free city centre bus inc.…read more

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Sustainable cities
Curritiba, Brazil
Environmental Preservation ­ 16 parks, 14 forests.…read more

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Waste Management
Züri-Sack, Zürich, Switzerland
Designed to change consumption habits and make people aware of useage
Single waste sack given to 97% of households weekly.…read more

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ONGOING Libya Syria Somalia Sudan
Nature Opposing rule Insurgency Territorial
Status Civil war, Civil war, Intra state,
ongoing, ongoing ongoing, armed
Participants NTC (governing Transitional Governements
body opposing Federal of Sudan and
Gadaffi's rule) Government of South Sudan,
Colonel Somalia, Islamic several armed
Muammar Courts Union rebel groups
Gadaffi. Several and splinter
rebel groups. groups.…read more

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Saddam Hussein wetland draining.
Indirect impacts
East Timor ­ 1/4m people displaced, Syria 4m. Changing popn pressure on land
Overgrazing over cultivation and deforestation ­ East Timor 1975, 50% covered in
forest. In 2000 only 2% covered.
2010 300'000 U18's fighting in wars
500'000 rapes during the Rwandan genocide + Sudanese war
Israeli ­ Palestinian Conflict
Origin ­ disagreement over territorial claim which is linked to religion. Both Israelis and
Palestinians consider Israel and particularly Jerusalem within religious homeland.…read more

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High population density leading to poor living conditions, greater spread of disease,
high IM rate, water shortages, shortages of resources such as medicines and
healthcare as the resources will not stretch, little money to upgrade.
Unequal distribution of resources
Security wall increased the security for Israel but prevents communications
ECONOMIC: There are significant economic inequalities between Israelis and Palestinians.
High unemployment in Palestine ­ 18.6% in the West Bank, 34.8% in Gaza compared
to 7.6% in Israel.…read more


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