AQA A2 Geography World Cities: Urbanisation

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  • Created on: 27-10-13 17:43
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Urbanisation is the growth in the proportion of a country's population that lives in urban areas.
Urbanisation is caused by rural-urban migration and a naturally increasing population.
As people migrate to cities the urban population increases.
The migrants tend to be young people looking for work.
They may then have children, which further increase the urban population.
Rural-urban migrations takes place because of push and pull factors:
Push Factors Pull Factors
Mechanisation of agriculture means fewer people There are more jobs available in urban areas
are needed to work the land so there's a lack of jobs
Changes in land use can drive people out ­ e.g. Jobs are usually better paid
farmland may be flooded when dams are built for
hydro-electric power
Natural disasters may damage homes and farmland, Better access to healthcare and education
which people cannot afford to repair or rebuild
Some farmers take out loans to help them improve Other family members may have already moved to
their yields, if their crop fails they may be unable to the city
pay these loans back
Human activity and changes in climate can cause There is often a perception that quality of life will be
desertification which means it cannot provide better in a city
enough food to support the population
Lack of services Pull of the bright lights
What lead to rapid urbanisation?
In Europe, during the industrial revolution of the 18 th and 19th centuries a number of developments
occurred at around the same time that allowed cities to grow larger than they had ever had in the past.
These included:
Agricultural revolution: loss of work and surplus of food for towns
Industrial processes: labour drawn in from countryside to work in factories
New power: coal took over from water power, mining areas expanded
Improved transport: canals then railways and later motorised roads
Improvements in medicine and hygiene: move people could live close without risk of disease

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Urbanisation has Impacts on Urban Areas
As urban populations grow there is an increased demand for space, resources and services.
If these increased demands cannot be met, it can lead to poor quality of life for the people living in the
area. Many developing countries cannot afford to meet these demands or cannot keep up with the rapid
rate of urbanisation, so urbanisation has a number of negative impacts.…read more

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Case Study: Mumbai
Mumbai is a mega city on the west coast of India.
Mumbai is globally important ­ it is a major port on the Indian Ocean, India's financial centre.
Migrants from rural areas all over India have moved to Mumbai in search of jobs.
As a result the population of Mumbai has increased rapidly from 5.9 million in 1971 to 12.5 million in 2011.…read more


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